A second advantage frequently attributed to American federalism is that, because federalism allows local preferences to be reflected in
laws and policies, it is a system of government that arguably reduces conflict. Some states
such as Massachusetts and Oregon, for example, tend to embrace a more liberal policy agenda than more conservative states such as Alabama and Arkansas. In a similar vein, Florida and
California have much more diverse populations than do Nebraska and Utah. In a unitary system, competing interests and preferences would likely emerge in a nationwide debate over
the formulation of standardized national policies. In a federal system, on the other hand, friction among interests may be reduced and conflict may be minimized, since policies can be shaped to
reflect local preferences by individual states.