Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP)
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Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP)


welcome to the El Dorado County SELPA
and charters SELPA behavior intervention plans for BIP training we hope you have
had an opportunity to watch the SELPA’s webinar which introduces participants to
the foundational skills needed for writing a functional behavior assessment
or FBA as you may know the purpose of completing a functional behavior
assessment is to provide the IEP team with additional information, analysis, and
strategies for dealing with undesirable behavior especially when it is
interfering with a child’s education in order to write an appropriate behavior
intervention plan. If you have not watched the FBA webinar we encourage you
to do so prior to completing this webinar, as most circumstances require
that an FBA be completed prior to writing a BIP if you have completed the
data collection steps necessary to write a functional behavior assessment and are
ready to begin writing the behavior intervention plan you are in the right
spot. The model displayed on this slide represents three tiers of behavioral
supports which may be provided to students across the school canvas. We
will look at each tier more closely in the following slides. Tier 1 is located
on the bottom of the pyramid and is representative of the majority of the
school’s student population. The supports listed in the blue boxes here are
examples of the universal supports which are provided to all students and have
positive outcomes for the 80 to 90% of students out of school. Tier 2 is located
in the middle of the pyramid and represents a smaller percentage of the
school’s student population usually 5 to 10%. Again, the supports listed in the
blue boxes are examples of targeted supports which are provided to 5 to 10
% of students and result in positive behavioral outcomes. The last tier, tier 3 is located at the top of the pyramid and is representative of the
school’s high-risk student population the supports listed in the blue boxes
are examples of increasingly individualized supports which are
required to support this population of students. Usually one
to five percent of a school’s total population. For example behavioral
assessments may be conducted to determine the function of the students
behavior or for a student who already has an IEP the IEP team would consider
adding appropriate behavioral goals for the student. The behavior intervention
plan which we are reviewing today is considered to be a Tier three support
because it is designed to support an individual student and that student’s
problem behavior. Our second objective today is for all participants to be
familiar with the six keys of applied behavior analysis or ABA and how these
six keys can support the development of a behavior intervention plan. The first
key states, “behavior serves a purpose or function for the student.” Understanding
how the behavior serves a purpose or function empowers the school staff to
begin identifying appropriate interventions. Ask yourself “why is the
student misbehaving?” Think of behavior as communication it is important to know
our own triggers and staff in order to change words thoughts and beliefs
regarding behavior particularly challenging behavior. A key resource for
you to use in determining this purpose is the ABC chart in the accompanying
training packet. As you can see from the example on this slide the ABC chart
requires documentation of the antecedent or what happens before the problem
behavior occurs. The problem behavior itself and what happens immediately
afterwards otherwise known as the consequence. Please refer to the FBA
training for additional information regarding how to use the ABC chart to
help collect data. The second key states behavior is related to the environment. Ask yourself, “why does the behavior appear in certain environments?” A student
with ADHD for example may do really well in PE but have trouble during independent
desk work. Same student different context Physical settings includes elements such
as noise temperature and proximity to other students. The social setting refers
to the quality of interactions with staff and students. The nature of
instruction: do the activities and instruction meet the learners needs? The
degree of independence is a factor in the environment as well. Is there too
much or too little reinforcement or prompting? Degree of participation may
depend on environmental factors such as group size and opportunities to respond. For scheduling factors consider timing transitions sequencing of the day. The
degree of choice is an additional element in the environment how often is
the learner able to make choices throughout the day? The third key states
altering behavior requires changes. Data collected during the FBA process can be
utilized to remove alter or add environmental variables to change the
students need to use the target behavior In addition, data can assist the team in
identifying the functionally equivalent replacement behavior or FERB. The FERB is
a taught new behavior that serves the same purpose or function as the problem
behavior but in a more appropriate way we will discuss this further later in
the presentation ask yourself “how will the BIP support
the student? Are there behavior changes that could occur with peers teachers or
other school staff which could further support the students and the success of
the BIP?” For example if the teacher changes his or her reaction to the
students problem behavior, would that help extinguish the problem behavior? The
fourth key states “new behavior must be reinforced.” Ask yourself “why do you
participate in certain activities and not others?” Everything we do every
behavior we choose is based on an instinctual desire to experience
pleasure and avoid pain. Our choices reflect our experience it is important
to note that positive reinforcement is not bribery the reward is not given as
an inducement to perform the task but as a reward for a task completed or
approximation to the end result. A key resource for you to use in determining
this purpose is the interest survey and reinforcement survey in your training
packet. This will empower your team to know what the student enjoys and will
reinforce the change in behavior. The fifth key states “reactive strategies
must be developed.” This step asks you to identify strategies for managing problem
behavior instructing and prompting the student to use desirable behavior
debriefing with staff and establishing appropriate consequences reactive
strategies for future occurrences of the targeted behavior must be developed to
include prompting the students to switch to the functionally equivalent
replacement behavior or firm that has been taught reducing the effectiveness
of the problem behavior managing the problem behavior safely debriefing
and/or additional practice of the functionally equivalent replacement
behavior after the problem is over consequences or punishment may or may
not be required or desired by the team ask yourself who will implement the
strategies do they have the necessary training to implement the strategies
with fidelity a key resource for you to use in making these determinations is
the positive communications element and clarify paraphrase and reflect handouts
in your resource packet the sixth and final key states communications and
progress monitoring as stated briefly on the previous slide communication between
all stakeholders is critical in order to monitor progress and review or revise a
plan to ensure educational benefit who is responsible for
monitoring you need to be specific regarding this element you want to
specify all persons for each data exchange or communication under what
circumstances communication is required how communication will take place how
often communication will take place what will be the content of that
communication and how communication will be identified as received and returned
what is the plan for ongoing communication and how will it be
reported out what types of data will be captured
there could be frequency data or how often the behavior occurs duration data
how long does the behavior last scatter plot data when does the behavior occur
in chart form and ABC data why does the behavior occur which could also be
charted key resources for you to use in determining this element might include
the frequency data duration data ABC data and positive communication
resources in your training packet a behavior intervention plan or BIP is a
support that is used to help a student with behavioral problems in remaining in
the least restrictive environment the document guides the team in consistently
providing the appropriate interventions when problem behavior occurs. A BIP
shall be developed when one of the following occurs student behavior
impedes the learning of the self or others student has been removed for 10
days due to problem behavior the IEP team determines the students misconduct
is a manifestation of his or her disability or after an FBA has been
completed a behavior intervention plan shall be designed or planned only by
personnel who have any of the credentials listed on this slide as a
friendly reminder data collected during functional behavior
assessment is critical to developing a BIP by identifying the core or target
behavior observing the pupil perhaps in different or multiple environments and
collecting data on the target behavior and decedent’s and consequences
formulating a hypothesis about the cause of the behavior developing an
intervention or interventions to test that hypothesis collecting data on the
effectiveness of the intervention in changing the behavior another reminder
there are six keys to applied behavior analysis behavior serves the purpose
behavior is related to the environment altering behavior requires
changes new behavior must be reinforced reactive strategies must be developed
communication and progress monitoring are critical now we will look at the B
IP forms in SEIS first the form is located in the individual students
future IEP documents the first line in the document asks us to define the
behavior which is impeding learning to the best of our ability we need to do
this by defining the behavior in observable terms so for example what
does off-task behavior look like is a student out of their seat or talking to
a peer what does disruptive behavior look like etc some terms that may come
up that need further definition could include disrespectful outbursts
self-stimulatory gets upset with changes to routine non-compliant the question
with words or behaviors like these is how can these behaviors be defined in
more measureable countable and observable terms whenever possible the
focus of a BIP should be on one target behavior the second line requires
consideration of the impact the behavior has
on the students achievement are there less academic or social skills learned
by this student or others because of the problem behavior does this behavior
raise safety or welfare concerns examples of how behavior may interfere
with learning could include the student is unavailable for instruction it
reduces skills learning reduces productivity lack of work production
negatively impacts progress or grades disrupts the other students opportunity
to learn requires activities class instruction to stop instructional time
is lost for disciplinary proceedings requires full adult attention during the
problem behavior negative interaction with peers which creates fear in an
environment where peers are hyper vigilant about this student which
interferes with peers’ learning the third line asks that we categorize the need
for a BIP based on the following four categories early stage behavior is not
yet significantly impacting learning of student or classroom functioning but
could escalate if not addressed it is assumed that general classroom
management techniques are not sufficient or that the unique nature of the
behavior or the members of the IEP team are requiring a formal individualized
plan moderate behavior is beginning to significantly impact classroom
functioning or student learning serious students behavior may require systematic
observations and data collection and analysis procedures extreme behavior
student poses a safety issue to others or to self students behavior may require
systematic observations and data collection and analysis procedures line
4 requires documentation of the frequency intensity or duration of the
behavior definitions of these just for review
frequency how often the behavior happens this could be every ten seconds three
times per week periodically during the month etc intensity would be a
description of the heightened impact of the behavior for example the depth the
force the strength vigor or extreme level of the behavior for example
screams loud enough to be heard in adjacent classroom hits with closed
fists hard enough to leave bruises on the person hit bite hard enough to leave
marks but has not yet broken skin duration is how long the behavior lasts
for example after lunch throughout fifth and sixth period during an entire
classroom period with no stopping continuous for twenty minutes if an FBA
was completed this information would have most likely been collected please
refer to your resource packet for duration data collection and frequency
data collection worksheets line 5 requests information regarding behavior
predictors or in which situations the behavior is most likely to occur again
if an FBA was completed and the Assessor utilized the recommended ABC chart and
reviewed the FBA webinar this information would have been previously
documented line 6 asks what supports the student using the problem behavior
ask yourself what has not yet been provided in the educational environment
that could change the probability of the problem behavior occurring what has not
yet been removed that could change the probability of the behavior occurring similarly to line 6 line 7 states what
environmental changes structures and supports are needed to remove the
students need to use this behavior in other words are there time changes space
material or interaction changes that should occur here are some examples of
these under tide changes and you would find this under scheduling factors
on the environmental checklist you could give more or less time on tasks provide
a break after 15 minutes of work allow completion of tasks in parts or develop
a pacing technique for space changes which is listed under physical setting
in the environmental checklist examples might include students sitting near the
front student needs to sit near an assigned intervention buddy different
work areas will be clearly identified with different workspaces for different
tasks material changes could be made this would be listed under instructional
strategies on the environmental checklist examples could include
hands-on learning or manipulatives will be increased tasks organized in
sequencing trays with a visual schedule provided on students desk
interaction changes could occur on the environmental checklist see social
setting instructional status strategies degree of Independence social
interaction degree of choice degree of participation examples under these
categories might include use specific interventions voice volume and words
preparing the student ahead of time for change cue the student to use previously
taught coping techniques when changes to routine create anxiety why does the team
believe the problem behavior occurs the answer to this question shall be
documented on line 8 all behavior whether desirable or undesirable to
those around the person serves one of two functions for the individual either
to get something ie an object attention from peers or adults an activity money
desirable comments from peers or to reject something to avoid escape or
protest something undesired for example escape an assigned task that the student
states is too long too hard or too boring after the function of a behavior has
been identified one can determine a functionally equivalent replacement
behavior or FERB the firm should include a behavior that is more socially
appropriate than the problem behavior a Ferb is not the absence or termination
of the problem behavior for example the student will stop disrupting class the
Ferb must be an easier and more effective behavior than the problem
behavior and must meet the underlying student need or it will not work linking
back to the keys of ABA analysis please note the FERB must serve the same
function of the problem behavior let’s look at the following situations and
potential FERBs a student swears at the teacher to which the teacher stops and
instruction and responds to the student is the student in this situation
attempting to get or avoid something it appears that in this situation the
student is trying to seek attention from the teacher as such what would be the
most appropriate FERB of choices A B and C below the appropriate choice would be
B verbally state a desire for attention from the teacher the other
FERBs do not allow the student to get attention in a more appropriate way in this example the function of the
students behavior appears to be escape as such which choice would be the most
appropriate FERB in this example A would be the appropriate FERB go to the break
center thinking of staff who will be implementing the BIP line 10 asks what
teaching strategies are needed who will put them in place who will monitor and
with what frequency there are 4 basic steps to follow when teaching any new
behaviors step 1 is modeling the step in which the
students are shown examples of confident use of the behavior
step 2 is role-playing which is when students are requested to practice the
behavior step 3 is performance feedback which is when students are provided with
constructive feedback regarding the adequacy of their performance step 4 is
generalization and maintenance this is when students are encouraged to use
their newly learned behaviors in many settings teaching strategies listed on
line 10 for all FERBs listed on line 9 include details about how this will be
done for example materials are listed a strategy is described and a list of
procedures or skill steps is referenced be sure to address each FERB for this if
more than one FERB is being used line 11 states what are reinforcement procedures
key concepts to consider regarding reinforcement procedures include the
following specificity the team must specify exactly what the student will
learn contingency reinforcers must be contingently given immediately following
the desired behavior efficacy evidence there must be evidence that the
student wants the reinforcer frequency the frequency of earning either the
reinforcer or the token toward the reinforcer must match the student’s
ability to delay gratification if the student is not able to delay
gratification long enough to ever earn the reinforcer it will be ineffective
immediacy the reinforcer is delivered immediately after each desired behavior
this is especially important for developmentally young students who need
assistance in understanding which behaviors result in accessing the
reinforcer and sometimes in initial efforts to change a long-standing
problem behavior choice within variety offer more than one reinforcer and allow
the student to pre-select what he or she will strive to earn or allow the student
to select after the behavior or both line 12 asks what strategies will be
employed if the problem behavior occurs again strategies to consider may include
the following prompting can continuation or escalation of the problem behavior be
averted by using a prompt if so remind a student of how to get the desired
outcome with the FERB managing safety how will staff maintain safety of
everyone during escalated behavior this is critical and having a plan in place
is vital debriefing what procedures after calm is restored
help identify how to prevent further occurrences and restore rapport and rule
following behavior consequences these may or may not be required or
recommended through school safety requirements outside agency or parent
requests require specific consequences does the team believe a consequence will
result in a student avoiding using the problem behavior in the future what will
be the Disciplinary sanctions for the student should they engage in the
problem behavior which the BIP is being implemented especially initially any
disciplinary sanctions should be consistent with intervention strategies written in the students BIP students with disabilities are not exempt from
normal school disciplinary rules provided the rules are administered in a
non-discriminatory manner and are consistent with the students IEP the IEP
can include compliance with the school disciplinary code in the BIP to the
extent appropriate the school must ensure that any disciplinary action
taken has no adverse effects on the goal and objectives of the IEP and is not
applied in a discriminatory manner or in violation of section 504 if applicable
please be aware that emergency interventions may not be used in place
of an appropriate BIP they may only be used to control unpredictable
spontaneous behavior that poses clear and present danger or serious physical
harm to the student or others and that cannot be immediately prevented by a
lesser restrictive response Assembly Bill 86 continues to prohibit the use of
both restraint and seclusion except by agencies licensed and authorized to use
such interventions in addition AB 86 prohibits the use of interventions that
are designed or are likely to cause pain such as electroshock or that subject
students to verbal abuse humiliation or ridicule that deprives
students of any of their senses or of sleep food water or shelter or proper
supervision or that involve the use of noxious sprays or substances for each
FERB identified line 13 asks what kind of goals are required for this plan
there are three types of goals increasing positive behavior decreasing
or eliminating the problem behavior and replacing the problem behavior with a
FERB behavior goals should be entered into the BIP and in the IEP the FERB
goals specifically state how the FERB will achieve a similar
functional outcome to the problem behavior additional goals can and should
be written to increase general positive behavior or to decrease positive
behavior please note best practice is for the team to address
one target behavior in the BIP however if the BIP addresses more than one
behavior and all the behaviors serve the same function then the team can develop
one FERB goal if the behaviors serve more than one function then a ferb goal
should be developed for each function general adaptive positive behaviors are
behaviors desirable in educational environments for example completing all
assignments speaking politely sharing toys with peers following the rules of
basketball at recess sitting quietly on the bus etc line 13 continues to inquire
if additional curriculum accommodations or modifications are necessary if yes
provide additional explanation and be sure to respond to the 5 questions below
finally line 14 documents the manner and content of communication between team
members as we know communication requires an ongoing team approach with
all stakeholders actively communicating with others to provide information
no one member is supplying information to a passive recipient behavior plans
frequently fail when ongoing communication is not well designed and
implemented it is necessary to fully describe in the BIP how the
communication will occur and how each person will respond in return
to communication when received all stakeholders must keep in mind that
information on a student may be sensitive and confidential in nature
teams must consider communication barriers of team members
no phone non-english speaking illiterate or intellectually challenged parents a
helpful resource here is the positive communication element in
clarify paraphrase reflect handout in your training packet if the student has
an IEP there are a few additional areas in the IEP where documentation should be
included regarding problem behaviors first on a special factors page the team
should document if the behavior is impeding learning and note if the
behavior goal and/or behavior intervention plan is attached to the
document next be sure to include behavioral goals in the IEP document as
well as in the BIP this slide lists resources that may be helpful to you as
you are writing a BIP for student thank you for joining this webinar your
attendance is greatly appreciated if you have questions regarding the content of
this webinar or would like to discuss individual student circumstances further
please contact your el dorado county SELPA program specialist

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