Chapter 2 Federalism
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Chapter 2 Federalism

[Music] [Music] Glossary Central and State government working together people of particular country for example for example people of India are called Indians. Another example a person born and brought up in America is called an American. income or returns Levels – two or three tier Village Council City Council Topic of chapter two The topic for chapter two is Federalism. Across the world, various countries have two sets of governments that rule the country. One is the Central government and the other is the State government. Both the governments rule the country. For example, in India the major power lies
with Central government which is in Delhi. The State affairs are taken care
of by the State governments – for example Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,
Haryana. Both the Central and the State governments work together and this is called Federalism. Features of Federalism There are various levels within the government. In India we have Central government. Then we have the State government and we have a more localized body which is called the Local
government. There are fundamental provisions in the Constitution. The
Central and the State government follow the Constitution in ruling the country.
The Central government passes on the Constitution to the State government.
Both the governments cannot make changes to the Constitution. If there is conflict
between two state governments for example Uttar Pradesh and Madhya
Pradesh, the conflict is resolved by the judiciary. If there is a conflict between
the Central and the State government, then again, it is the judiciary who resolves
the conflict without any biases. In India, the Central government provides funding
to the State governments. These funds are used for various development purposes
for example, in Haryana for education, for infrastructure development, for water
resource management and various other aspects funding is provided. The states
have to utilize these funds and also generate revenues out of these funding.
Appropriate utilization of the state funds is reported to the state head and
the Central government. In India the Central government holds more power
and it manages and controls the State government. The State government manages the state affairs related to people and infrastructure development. Coming Together The United Kingdom consists of independent states. These states are run under the Central government however, under independent
provisions. This is called Coming Together. In the same way United States
of America, Australia and Switzerland follow the same system. Holding Together
let us take an example in India, the Central authority or power lies with the
Central government. The Central government allocates power to the states. This is called Holding Together. The next topic is Decentralization. What does this mean? Decentralization. Let me explain –
under federalism we have the Central government and the State government and we further have local governments. These are further subdivided to take care of
rural and urban administration.This is decentralization. Before 1992 we had the
Central and the State government – a two-tier system. Later on, after 1992 we
had an added subdivision, under which we had a localized government further
divided for Panchayat and Municipality. Municipal Corporation. What does this
mean? Let us take an example – large cities like Bombay, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai are
huge overflowing cities with huge
infrastructure and large population. The Corporation looks after the
administration of these large cities. For smaller cities and towns for example
Indore, Gurgaon, Bhopal and various other smaller cities the Municipality
takes charge. Panchayat – in villages we have the local council or the village
council who addresses the administration and the people affairs of
the village. Further on, we have the Zilla Parishad who takes care of the larger
areas of the villages or combined villages. All these challenges and issues
or local affairs are further submitted to the Panchayat Samiti. This is how all the levels are interrelated. Indian Federalism The various states, for example Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and the other states of
India if there is a conflict or a disagreement on a particular matter and
there is a requirement to make any changes the states do not have the power
to make those changes. These have to be tabled at the Parliament with the Lok
Sabha.The individual representatives will have a discussion on the concerned
matter and will then take this ahead to the Rajya Sabha. Once tabled with the
Rajya Sabha, it is discussed and implemented. How federalism came into
being? Prior to 1947, India was not subdivided into various states.There
were very few states which were very clearly demarcated. All India was one
huge country. After 1947, regions were subdivided into states depending on the
regional language of the local area, the communities and the cultures that they
shared. What is language policy? In India, we have
many states and many spoken languages. It became difficult for the government to
pick on one national language. In India one language that was largely used across the states was Hindi .It was then decided that Hindi would be marked as an
official language and English is the second official language across the
country. India is a large country with many states and many regional languages. The Government of India has picked 21 languages and marked them as scheduled
languages in the Constitution. These languages are honored by Indian people. In India we have Central government and the State government. We have various national political parties in India. During a
national calamity for example a flood or a hurricane or multiple damage to
various areas there is a coalition. Let’s take the example of the Kerala floods. During the Kerala floods all the political parties came together as one
to support Kerala. This is Coalition. Another example, during elections one
political party may have “x” number of seats or representatives. The other
political parties may not have equal number of representation.In such cases
two political parties will shake hands come together. This is coalition of State government. Democracy What is democracy? It is the
power of the people. During elections, the political parties are elected by the
people of the country. It is the decision taken by the people. State Election Commission In case any individual is keen on standing for elections, they need to submit the application to the State Election Commission. The State Election Commission is an autonomous body that validates the background and the details of each
candidate. Each state has its own State Election Commission.The State Election
Commissions are not interdependent on each other, they are autonomous. Discussion for students in the class.
Here are a few questions. What do you understand by Federalism? What do you understand by Urban? What does rural mean? When there is a conflict between the
State and a Central government who resolves the conflict? Who is responsible for large city administration? Who is responsible for village administration?
[Music] [Music]

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