Did you know there is a difference between immigration and naturalization under the Constitution? Most people assume that the federal government has complete control over immigration. This is partly due to the fact that they confuse immigration and naturalization. In fact, they are two very distinct things. The Constitution delegates to the federal government the power to establish a “uniform Rule of Naturalization,” but it does not expressly delegate any power to regulate immigration. Both James Madison and Thomas Jefferson said the individual states have the power to regulate immigration and to deal with any foreigners within their borders. Madison insisted the only time the federal government could deport a foreigner . was if they were from a country at war with the United States. So what’s the difference between immigration and naturalization? Well, immigration is the movement of people over a border and into a country. On the other hand, naturalization is the process of making a person a citizen. As Black’s Law Dictionary defines it, naturalization is “The act of adopting an alien into a nation, and clothing him with all the rights possessed by a natural- born citizen.” Naturalization is not the same thing as immigration, and vice versa. A person can immigrate without ever becoming a citizen. These are two distinct functions. The federal government has expressly-delegated power over one – naturalization – and none over the other – immigration.