Devolution | Wikipedia audio article
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Devolution | Wikipedia audio article


Devolution is the statutory delegation of
powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such
as a regional or local level. It is a form of administrative decentralization. Devolved territories have the power to make
legislation relevant to the area and thus granting them a higher level of autonomy.Devolution
differs from federalism in that the devolved powers of the subnational authority may be
temporary and are reversible, ultimately residing with the central government. Thus, the state remains de jure unitary. Legislation creating devolved parliaments
or assemblies can be repealed or amended by central government in the same way as any
statute. In federal systems, by contrast, sub-unit
government is guaranteed in the constitution, so the powers of the sub-units cannot be withdrawn
unilaterally by the central government (i.e. without the consent of the sub-units being
granted through the process of constitutional amendment). The sub-units therefore have a lower degree
of protection under devolution than under federalism.==Australia==
Australia is a federation. It has six states and two territories with
less power than states. The Australian Capital Territory refused self-government
in a 1978 referendum, but was given limited self-government by a House of Assembly from
1979, and a Legislative Assembly with wider powers in 1988. The Northern Territory of Australia refused
statehood in a 1998 referendum. The rejection was a surprise to both the Australian
and Northern Territory governments. Territory legislation can be disallowed by
the Commonwealth Parliament in Canberra, with one notable example being the NT’s short lived
voluntary euthanasia legislation.==Canada==
Although Canada is a federal state, a large portion of its land mass in the north is under
the legislative jurisdiction of the federal government. This has been the case since 1870. In 1870 the Rupert’s Land and North-Western
Territory Order effected the admission of Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory
to Canada, pursuant to section 146 of the Constitution Act, 1867 and the Rupert’s
Land Act, 1868. The Manitoba Act, 1870, which created Manitoba
out of part of Rupert’s Land, also designated the remaining territories the Northwest Territories
(NWT), over which Parliament was to exercise full legislative authority under the Constitution
Act, 1871. Since the 1970s, the federal government has
been transferring its decision-making powers to northern governments. This means greater local control and accountability
by northerners for decisions central to the future of the territories. Yukon was carved from the Northwest Territories
in 1898 but it remained a federal territory. Subsequently, in 1905, the provinces of Alberta
and Saskatchewan were created from the Northwest Territories. Other portions of Rupert’s Land were added
to the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, extending the provinces northward from their previous
narrow band around the St. Lawrence and lower Great Lakes. The District of Ungava was a regional administrative
district of Canada’s Northwest Territories from 1895 to 1912. The continental areas of said district were
transferred by the Parliament of Canada with the adoption of the Quebec Boundary Extension
Act, 1898 and the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act, 1912. The status of the interior of Labrador which
was believed part of Ungava was settled in 1927 by the British Judicial Committee of
the Privy Council, which ruled in favour of Newfoundland. In 1999, the federal government created Nunavut
pursuant to a land claim agreement reached with Inuit, the indigenous people of Canada’s
Eastern Arctic. The offshore islands to the west and north
of Quebec remained part of the Northwest Territories until the creation of Nunavut in 1999. Since that time, the federal government has
slowly devolved legislative jurisdiction to the territories. Enabling the territories to become more self-sufficient
and prosperous and to play a stronger role in the Canadian federation is considered a
key component to development in Canada’s North. Among the three territories, devolution is
most advanced in Yukon.===Northwest Territories===
The Northwest Territories (NWT) was governed from Ottawa from 1870 until the 1970s, except
for the brief period between 1898 and 1905 when it was governed by an elected assembly. The Carrothers Commission was established
in April 1963 by the government of Lester B. Pearson to examine the development of government
in the NWT. It conducted surveys of opinion in the NWT
in 1965 and 1966 and reported in 1966. Major recommendations included that the seat
of government of the territories should be located in the territories. Yellowknife was selected as the territorial
capital as a result. Transfer of many responsibilities from the
federal government to that of the territories was recommended and carried out. This included responsibility for education,
small business, public works, social services and local government. Since the report, the transfer of the government
of Northwest Territories has taken over responsibilities for several other programs and services including
the delivery of health care, social services, education, administration of airports, and
forestry management. The legislative jurisdiction of the territorial
legislature is set out in section 16 of the Northwest Territories Act. Now, the government of Canada is negotiating
the transfer of the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development’s remaining
provincial-type responsibilities in the NWT. These include the legislative powers, programs
and responsibilities for land and resources associated with the department’s Northern
Affairs Program (NAP) with respect to: Powers to develop, conserve, manage, and regulate
of surface and subsurface natural resources in the NWT for mining and minerals (including
oil and gas) administration, water management, land management and environmental management;
Powers to control and administer public land with the right to use, sell or otherwise dispose
of such land; and Powers to levy and collect resource royalties
and other revenues from natural resources.The Government of the Northwest Territories, the
Aboriginal Summit and the Government of Canada have each appointed a Chief Negotiator to
work on devolution. A Framework Agreement was concluded in 2004. The target date for the completion of devolution
talks for the NWT was March 2007. However, stumbling blocks associated with
the transfer of current federal employees to the territorial government, and the unresolved
issue of how much money the Northwest Territories will receive for its resources has delayed
the conclusion of a devolution agreement for the NWT.===Nunavut===
In 1966, the federal government established the Carruthers Commission to look at the issue
of government in the north. After extensive study and consultation, the
Commission concluded that division of the NWT was probably both advisable and inevitable. There was a recognition that Northerners wanted
to run their own affairs and must be given the opportunity to do so. At the same time, however, it noted that governmental
reform was required before this could happen. It recommended the establishment of a new
system of representative government. As a result, in the late 1960s and in the
1970s, the federal government gradually created electoral constituencies and transferred many
federally run programs to the territorial government. Northerners took on more and more responsibility
for the day-to-day running of their own affairs. In 1982 a plebiscite was held in the NWT asking
the question, “Do you think the NWT should be divided?” Fifty-three percent of eligible voters participated
in the plebiscite, with 56.4 percent of them voting “yes”. Voter turnout and support for division was
particularly strong in the Eastern Arctic. The Inuit population of the eastern section
of the territory had become increasingly receptive of the idea of self-government. It was viewed as the best way to promote and
protect their culture and traditions and address their unique regional concerns. Both the NWT Legislative Assembly and the
federal government accepted the idea of dividing the territory. The idea was viewed as an important step towards
enabling the Inuit, and other residents of the Eastern Arctic, to take charge of their
own destiny. There were some reservations, however. Before action could be taken, certain practical
considerations had to be addressed. First of all, outstanding land claims had
to be settled. Second, all parties had to agree on a new
boundary. Finally, all parties had to agree on the division
of powers between territorial, regional and local levels of government. The various governments and native groups
worked closely together to realize these goals. The Nunavut Land Claims Agreement was ratified
by the Inuit in November 1992, signed by the Prime Minister of Canada on May 25, 1993,
and passed by the Canadian Parliament in June of the same year. It was the largest native land claim settlement
in Canadian history. It gave the Inuit title over 350,000 square
kilometres of land. It also gave the Inuit capital transfers from
the federal government of over $1.1 billion over the next 14 years. This money will be held in trust with the
interest to be used in a variety of different projects, including financing for regional
businesses and scholarships for students. The Inuit also gained a share of resource
royalties, hunting rights and a greater role in managing the land and protecting the environment. The land claims agreement also committed the
Government of Canada to recommend to Parliament legislation to create a new territory in the
eastern part of the Northwest Territories. While negotiations on a land claims settlement
progressed, work was also taking place to determine potential jurisdictional boundaries
for a new Eastern Territory. A proposal was presented to all NWT voters
in a May 1992 plebiscite. Of those voting, 54 percent supported the
proposed boundary. The Government of the Northwest Territories,
the Tungavik Federation of Nunavut (the Inuit claims organization) and the federal government
formally adopted the boundary for division in the Nunavut Political Accord. The final piece of the equation fit into place
on June 10, 1993, when the Nunavut Act received Royal Assent. It officially established the territory of
Nunavut and provided a legal framework for its government. It fixed April 1, 1999, as the day on which
the new territory would come into existence. The government of Nunavut is currently negotiating
with the government of Canada on a devolution agreement. Nunavut Tunngavik, the organization of Inuit
of Nunavut, is also a participant to negotiations to ensure that Inuit interests are represented. Devolution over natural resources to the government
of Nunavut moved forward with the appointment of a Ministerial Representative for Nunavut
Devolution. The Representative has held meetings with
interested parties including the Boards established under the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement (NLCA),
territorial and federal government departments in order to determine if devolution will occur
and if so the future mandate of devolution. The government of Nunavut and Nunavut Tunngavik
have appointed negotiators.===Yukon===
In 1896 prospectors discovered gold in Yukon. There ensued what is often considered the
world’s greatest gold rush, which saw the population of Yukon grow rapidly. Indeed, by 1898, Dawson grew into the largest
Canadian city west of Winnipeg, with a population of 40,000. In response, the Canadian government officially
established the Yukon Territory in 1898. The North-West Mounted Police were sent in
to ensure Canadian jurisdiction and the Yukon Act provided for a commissioner to administer
the territory. The 1898 statute granted the Commissioner
in Council “the same powers to make ordinances… as are possessed by the Lieutenant Governor
of the North-west Territories, acting by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative
Assembly thereof”. In 1908 amendments to the Yukon Act transformed
the Council into an elected body. Over time the territorial government exercised
expanded functions. Relevant developments include the following: By the mid-1960s, schools, public works, welfare,
and various other matters of a local nature had come under territorial administration. Increased authority of elected Council members
over the ensuing period contributed to significant changes in the Yukon Commissioner’s role. In 1979, instructions from the Minister of
Indian Affairs and Northern Development (Minister) directed the Commissioner to allow elected
members and the Executive Council to make important policy decisions, specifying that
his/her actions should normally be based on the advice and taken with the consent of the
elected Executive Council. As in the Northwest Territories, federal responsibilities
were transferred to the Yukon government in the 1980s. In 1988 the Minister and the Yukon Government
Leader signed a Memorandum of Understanding committing the parties to smooth the progress
of devolution of remaining province-like responsibilities to the Yukon Government. Responsibilities transferred since then include
fisheries, mine safety, intra-territorial roads, hospitals and community-health care,
oil-and-gas and, most recently, natural resources. Discussion to transfer land- and resource-management
responsibilities to the Yukon Government began in 1996, followed by a formal federal devolution
proposal to the Yukon Government in January 1997. In September 1998 a Devolution Protocol Accord
to guide devolution negotiations was signed. On August 28, 2001 a final draft of the Devolution
Transfer Agreement was completed for consideration. The Yukon Devolution transfer Agreement was
concluded on October 29, 2001, with the Government of Canada enabling the transfer of remaining
province-like responsibilities for land, water and resource management to the Government
of Yukon on April 1, 2003.==Mexico=====
The Federal District===All constituent states of Mexico are fully
autonomous and comprise a federation. The Federal District, originally integrated
by Mexico City and other municipalities, was created in 1824 to be the capital of the federation. As such, it was governed directly by the central
or federal government and the president of Mexico appointed its governor or executive
regent. Even though the municipalities within the
Federal District were autonomous, their powers were limited. In 1928, these municipalities were abolished
and transformed into non-autonomous delegaciones or boroughs and a “Central Department”, later
renamed as Mexico City. In 1970 this department was split into four
new delegaciones, and Mexico City was constitutionally defined to be synonymous and coterminous with
the entire Federal District. (As such, the boroughs of the Federal District
are boroughs of Mexico City). In the 1980s, the citizens of the Federal
District, being the most populated federal entity in Mexico, began to demand for home
rule; a devolution of autonomy in order to directly elect their head of government and
to set up a Legislative Assembly. In 1987, an Assembly of Representatives was
created, by constitutional decree, whose members were elected by popular vote. The devolution of the executive power was
not granted until 1997 when the first head of government was elected by popular vote. Finally, in 2000, power was devolved to the
delegaciones, though limited: residents can now elect their own “heads of borough government”
(jefes delegacionales, in Spanish), but the delegaciones do not have regulatory powers
and are not constituted by a board of trustees, like the municipalities of the constituent
states. The autonomy, or home rule, of the Federal
District, was granted by the federal government, which in principle, has the right to remove
it. The president of Mexico still holds the final
word in some decisions (e.g. he must approve some posts), and the Congress of the Union
reviews the budget of the Federal District and sets the limit to its debt.Some left-wing
groups and political parties have advocated, since the 1980s, for a full devolution of
powers by transforming the Federal District into the thirty-second constituent state of
the Federation (with the proposed name of “State of the Valley of Mexico”, to be distinguished
from the state of México. Another proposed name is “State of the Anahuac”).===Indigenous peoples===
In a recent amendment to the Constitution of Mexico, the country was defined as a “pluricultural
nation” founded upon the “indigenous peoples”. They are granted “free-determination” to choose
the social, economic, cultural and political organization for which they are to elect representatives
democratically in whatever manner they see fit, traditionally or otherwise, as long as
women have the same opportunities to participate in their social and political life. There are, however, no prescribed limits to
their territories, and they are still under the jurisdiction of the municipalities and
states in which they are located; the indigenous peoples can elect representatives before the
municipal councils. In practice, they are allowed to have an autonomous
form of self-government, but they are still subject to the rights and responsibilities
set forth by the federal constitution and the constitution of the states in which they
are located.==France==In the late 1980s a process of decentralisation
was undertaken by the French government. Initially regions were created and elected
regional assemblies set up. Together with the departmental councils these
bodies have responsibility for infrastructure spending and maintenance (schools and highways)
and certain social spending. They collect revenues through property taxes
and various other taxes. In addition a large part of spending is provided
by direct grants to such authorities.There also are groups calling for devolution or
full independence for Occitania, Alsace, and Brittany.==Spain==The Spanish Constitution of 1978 granted autonomy
to the nationalities and regions of which the Kingdom of Spain is composed. (See also autonomous communities and cities
of Spain) Under the “system of autonomies” (Spanish:
Estado de las Autonomías), Spain has been quoted to be “remarkable for the extent of
the powers peacefully devolved over the past 30 years” and “an extraordinarily decentralised
country”, with the central government accounting for just 18% of public spending; the regional
governments 38%, the local councils 13% and the social-security system the rest.In 2010
the Constitutional Court had ruled that non-binding referendums could be held and subsequently
several municipalities held such referendums.On December 12, 2013 the Catalan Government announced
that a referendum would be held on self-determination. The central government of Spain considers
that a binding referendum is unconstitutional and cannot be held. On October 1, 2017 the regional government
held a referendum despite having been declared illegal by the Spanish courts. Subsequently, several leaders were arrested
and imprisoned on charges of “sedition” and “rebellion”. The regional president fled to Brussels, but
has so far escaped extradition as those offenses are not part of Belgian law or the European
Arrest Warrant. On December 21, 2017 fresh elections were
held in which pro-independence parties held a slim majority and a broad coalition of constitutionalist
parties expressed disappointment and concern for the future.==United Kingdom==In the United Kingdom, devolved government
was created following simple majority referenda in Wales and Scotland in September 1997 and
in London in May 1998. Between 1998 and 1999, the Scottish Parliament,
National Assembly for Wales, Northern Ireland Assembly and London Assembly were established
by law. The Campaign for an English Parliament, which
supports English devolution (i.e. the establishment of a separate English parliament or assembly)
was formed in 1998. A referendum was held in Scotland on 18 September
2014 which asked citizens whether Scotland should be an independent country. By a margin of approximately 55 percent to
45 percent, people living in Scotland rejected the proposal. The leaders of the three largest British political
parties pledged on 16 September 2014 a new devolution settlement for Scotland in the
event of a No vote, promising to deliver “faster, safer and better change”, and as a result
of this vote and promises made during the referendum campaign, British Prime Minister
David Cameron announced plans to devolve additional powers to the Scottish government, the nature
of which would be determined by the Smith Commission. These powers were subsequently transferred
in the Scotland Act 2016. Following the outcome of the United Kingdom
European Union membership referendum on 23 June 2016, calls for further devolution have
been raised, including differential membership of the European single market for the devolved
areas of the United Kingdom.==United States==In the United States only the federal government
and state governments are sovereign. Legal relationships with Native American tribes
and their government structures are the jurisdiction of the federal government. Territories are under the direct jurisdiction
of Congress. Territorial governments are thus devolved
by acts of Congress. Political subdivisions of a state, such as
a county or municipality, are a type of devolved government and are defined by individual state
constitutions and laws.===District of Columbia===In the United States, the District of Columbia
offers an illustration of devolved government. The District is separate from any state, and
has its own elected government; in many ways, on a day-to-day basis, it operates much like
another state, with its own laws, court system, Department of Motor Vehicles, public university,
and so on. However, the governments of the 50 states
reserved a broad range of powers in the U.S. Constitution, and most of their laws cannot
be voided by any act of U.S. federal government. The District of Columbia, by contrast, is
constitutionally under the sole control of the United States Congress, which created
the current District government by statute. Any law passed by the District legislature
can be nullified by congressional action, and indeed the District government could be
significantly altered or eliminated entirely by a simple majority vote in Congress.==List of unitary states with devolution
====
See also==Decentralisation
Federalism Federalism in China; tiao-kuai
Home rule Principle of conferral
Royal Commission on the Constitution (United Kingdom)
Scotland Act 2012 States and Territories of Australia
Subsidiarity Territories of the United States
West Lothian question==
Notes====
External links==Economic and Social Research Council Devolution
and Constitutional Change research programme http://www.bbc.co.uk An Article from the BBC
describing the transfer of powers from the UK Parliament to the Welsh Assembly

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