Government of Pakistan
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Government of Pakistan


The Government of Pakistan is a federal
government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a
constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and
established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the
State of Pakistan. Effecting the Westminster system for
governing the state, the government is mainly composed of the executive,
legislative, and judicial branches, in which all powers are vested by the
Constitution in the Parliament, the Prime Minister and the Supreme Court.
The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts and
amendments of the Parliament, including the creation of executive institutions,
departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court. Granting constitutional
powers to President to promulgate the ordinances and passing bills, the
president acted as the ceremonial figurehead and the people-elected Prime
Minister acting as the chief executive and responsible for running the federal
government. There is a bicameral Parliament with the National Assembly as
a lower house and the Senate as an upper house. The judicial branch
systematically contains its apex Supreme Court, high courts of four provinces,
numbers of district, anti-terrorism, Sharia, and the green courts; all
inferior to the Supreme Court. The full name of the nation-state is the
Islamic Republic of Pakistan. No other name appears in the Constitution, and
this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases. The
“Pakistan Government” or “Government of Pakistan” are often used in official
documents representing the federal government collectively. Also, the terms
“Federal” and “National” in government institution or program names generally
indicates affiliation with the federal government. Because the seat of
government is in Islamabad, “Islamabad” is commonly used as a metonym for the
federal government. In federal law and Constitution
The Constitution of Pakistan established and constituted the federal government
of four provinces of federation of nation-state, known as State of
Pakistan. The Constitution reads as: “The Federal Governments is Subject to
the Constitution, the executive authority of the Federation shall be
exercised in the name of the President by the Federal Government, consisting of
the Prime Minister and the Ministers, which shall act through the Prime
Minister, who shall be the chief executive of the Federation.
In the performance of his functions under the Constitution, the Prime
Minister may act either directly or through the Ministers.”
The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of Pakistan are
set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the Exit Control
List, the Pakistan Penal Code, and the Frontier Crimes Regulations. By the
Article 246th and Article 247th to the constitution, the Islamic Jirga system
has become an institution for local governance. Reforms in the government
administration and the constitutional law matters jurisprudence in Pakistan in
the 1950s has been greatly influenced by the United States’ legal system. Since
the 1970s, the traditional jirga-based law has also influenced the country’s
judicial development. Legislative branch
The legislative branch is known as the parliament, a term for legislature
inherited from the United Kingdom. The National Assembly: The National
Assembly is a lower house and directly people-elected 342-member National
Assembly. The Senate: The Senate is a upper house
and the ~104-senators are indirectly elected for six-year terms.
The Parliament enjoys parliamentary supremacy. All the Cabinet ministers as
well as the Prime Minister must also be members of Parliament, accordance to the
constitution. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet officials are responsible to the
Parliament collectively. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet
Ministers are jointly accountable to the Parliament. If there is a policy failure
or lapse on the part of the government, all the members of the cabinet are
jointly responsible. If a vote of no confidence is passed against the
government, then the government collapses and a new one must be formed.
Executive branch By general definition, the executive
branch of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for
the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into
separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the
separation of powers. The separation of powers system is designed to distribute
authority away from the executive branch – an attempt to preserve individual
liberty in response to tyrannical leadership throughout history.
=Prime Minister=The Prime Minister of Pakistan, is the
executive head of government of Pakistan, constitutionally designated as
the Chief Executive. Popularly elected by people in direct elections in the
parliament, the Prime minister is responsible for appointing a cabinet as
well as running the government operations.
The Prime Minister duly appoints the directors, executives, chairmen in
almost all state institutions and corporations, accordance to
constitution, including: Chief Ministers of Four Provinces
Key administrative and military appointments in the Pakistan Armed
Forces. The Chairmen and other Members of the
federal commissions and public institutions.
Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countries.
The cabinet secretaries and directors in the administrative positions of the
government.=President=
The President of Pakistan is a ceremonial figurehead, a ceremonial head
of state representing the unity of the country.
Elected for a five-year term by an indirect elections, the electoral
college consisting of members of the Senate and National Assembly and members
of the four provincial assemblies, the president is eligible for reelection.
But no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms. The
president may resign or be impeached and may be removed from office for
incapacity or gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote of the members of the
parliament. The President enjoys all constitutional
powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as
per the aforesaid Article 41-Article 47. The President is responsible for making
a wide variety of appointments. These include:
Governors of Four Provinces The Chief Justice
The Chief Election Commissioner The Attorney General and Comptroller and
Auditor General The President, as Head of State also
receives the credentials of Ambassadors from other countries, whilst the Prime
Minister, as Head of Government, receives credentials of High
Commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical
tradition. The President is de jure the civilian
Commander in Chief of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
The President of Pakistan can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence,
reprieve and respite, and to remit, suspend or commute any sentence passed
by any court, tribunal or other authority, particularly in cases
involving punishment of death. The decisions involving pardoning and other
rights by the President are independent of the opinion of the Prime Minister or
the Parliamentary majority. In most other cases, however, the President
exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the Prime Minister.
=Cabinet, executive departments and institutions=
The Cabinet can have maximum number of 11 percent of total strength of
Parliament members, there can be maximum 49 members of cabinet excluding PM. Each
Cabinet official must be a member of parliament who are elected in direct
elections. The Cabinet ministers chaired the Cabinet and further assisted by the
Cabinet Secretary, whose appointment comes from the Civil Services of
Pakistan. Other Ministers are either Ministers of State, who are junior
members who report directly to one of the Cabinet Ministers, often overseeing
a specific aspect of government. Once appointed all cabinet ministers are
officially confirmed to their appointment offices by the President in
a special oath of ceremony. Judicature branch
Pakistan’s independent judicial system begins under the British Raj, and its
concepts and procedures resemble those of Anglo-Saxon countries. Institutional
changes and judicial procedures were later changed under the influence by
American legal and court system in the 1950s to remove the fundamental rights
problems. The Supreme Court of Pakistan consisted of Chief Justice and Senior
justices; all appointed by the President after concluding the consultation with
the Chief Justice of Pakistan. The Constitution does not fixed the number
of justices of the Supreme Court, though it can be fixed by Parliament through an
act signed by the President. The judiciary consists of the Supreme
Court of Pakistan, High Courts of Pakistan provincial level; District
Courts in each district; anti-terrorism courts; Sharia courts;, and the
environmental courts in all over the country; all courts inferior to Supreme
Court.=Judicature transfer=
The Constitution grants powers to the Supreme Court to consider expedient to
do so in the interest of justice. Although the proceedings in the Supreme
Court arise out of the judgement or orders made by the subordinate courts,
the Supreme Court reserves the right to transfer any case, appeal or other
proceedings pending before any High Court to any other High Court.
=Supreme Judicial Council=Misconduct of judges are highly in
tolerated in the judicial branch, as it is mentioned in the constitution. Under
the mainframe of the Supreme Judicial Council, the Article 209 conduct a full
inquiring into the capacity or conduct of a Judge who is a member of the
Council. Civil service
The civil service of Pakistan is a permanent bureaucracy of the Government
of Pakistan. The civil servants are the permanent officials of the government,
occupying a respected image in the civil society. Civil servants come from
different departments are awarded commission contracts by the ministers
based on their experience, capability, and resourcefulness. Not all the
employees of the Government of Pakistan are civil servants; other employees of
the Government of Pakistan come from the scientific institutions, state-owned
corporations and commissioned military science circles.
In the parliamentary democracy, the ultimate responsibility for running the
administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are
the ministers. These ministers are accountable to the legislatures which
are also elected by the people on the basis of universal adult suffrage. But
the handful of ministers are not expected to deal personally with the
various problems of modern administration. Thus the ministers lay
down the policy and it is for the civil servants to enforce it.
=Cabinet secretaries=The Cabinet secretaries are the most
senior, experienced, and capable officials in the country, having studied
and trained first at the Civil Service Academy then pursuing further education
at the specific academies. Each ministry consisted of their secretaries to
oversee and enforce the public policy matters. Arguably, the secretaries are
the most powerful statesmen in the country, especially the Establishment
secretary who works in close coordination with the Prime Minister.
Management of major crisis situations in the country and coordinating activities
of the various Ministries in such a situation is also one of the functions
of the Cabinet Secretariat. Appointment for the chairman of civil services, the
FPSC, is made by the President on the required consultation of the Prime
Minister, according to Article 242 of the Constitution.
Elections and voting system Since 1947, Pakistan has an asymmetric
federal government, with elected officials at the national, provincial,
tribal, and local levels. Constitution has set the limit of government for five
years, but if a Vote of no confidence movements takes place in the parliament,
the government falls and immediately replaced with caretaker government
initiated by the president, in regards to Article 58 of the constitution.
There has been four times that the martial law has been in effect, and
controversially approved by the supreme court. Through a general election where
the leader of the majority winning party is selected to be the Prime Minister.
All members of the federal legislature, the Parliament, are directly elected.
Elections in Pakistan take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.
Administration and governments =Provincial, tribal, and local
governments=There are four provincial governments
that rules the four provinces of the state; the Chief Ministers heads the
state government. The Governors appointed by President after the
consultation from the Prime minister, acts has representative of federal
government; no powers they have to run the government. All provincial
assemblies are unicameral, elected for five years only.
The provincial governments tend to have the greatest influence over most
Pakistanis’ daily lives. The tribal and Local government function at the basic
level. It is the third level of government apart from federal and
provincial governments, consisting Jirga in rural tribal areas.
Finance =Taxation and budget=
Pakistan has a complex taxation system of more than 70 unique taxes
administered by at least 37 tax collection institutions of the
Government of Pakistan. Taxation is a debated and controversial issue in
public and political science circle of the country, and according to the
International Development Committee, Pakistan had a lower-than-average tax
take. Only 0.57% of Pakistanis, or 768,000 people out of a population of
190 million pay income tax. The Finance Minister of Pakistan
presents the annual federal budget in the Parliament in the midst of the year,
and it has to be passed by the both houses of the Parliament. The budget is
preceded by an economic survey which outlines the broad direction of the
budget and the economic performance of the country for the outgoing financial
fiscal year.=NFC program overview=
Abide and constituted under the Article 160 of the Constitution by the
Constitution, the National Finance Commission Award program is a series of
planned economic program to take control of financial imbalances and equally
managed the financial resources to four provinces to meet their expenditure
liabilities while alleviating the horizontal fiscal imbalances.
Stipulations and directions mentioned by the Constitution, the provisional
governments and Federal government compete to get higher share of the
program’s revenues in order to stabilize their own financial status.
Issues =Corruption=
The corruption is on-going issue in the government, claiming to take initiatives
against it, particularly in the government and lower levels of police
forces. In 2011, the country has had a consistently poor ranking at the
Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index with scores of 2.5,
2.3 in 2010, and 2.5 in 2009 out of 10. In 2011, Pakistan ranked 134 on the
index with 42 countries ranking worse. In 2012, Pakistan’s ranking dropped even
further from 134 to 139, making Pakistan the 34th most corrupt country in the
world, tied with Azerbaijan, Kenya, Nepal, and Nigeria.
=Circular debt and spending priorities Since before the collapse of the USSR in
1991, progressive economic liberalization has been carried out by
the government both at the provincial and the national level. Pakistan has
achieved FDI of almost $8.4 billion in the financial fiscal year of 2006–07,
surpassing the government target of $4 billion. Despite this milestone
achievement, the Foreign investment had significantly declined by 2010, dropping
by ~54.6% due to Pakistan’s military operations, financial crises, law and
order situation in Karachi, according to the Bank of Pakistan. From the 2006
estimate, the Government expenditures were ~$25 billion.
Funding in science and education has been a primary policy of the Government
of Pakistan, since 1947. Moreover, English is fast spreading in Pakistan,
with 18 million Pakistanis having a command over the English language, which
makes it the 3rd Largest English Speaking Nation in the world and the 2nd
largest in Asia. On top of that, Pakistan produces about 445,000
university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year. Despite
these statistics, Pakistan still has one of the highest illiteracy rates in the
world and the second largest out of school population after Nigeria.
=Debts and deficit=As per the CIA World Factbook, in 2010,
Pakistan ranks 63rd in the world, with respect to the public external debt to
various international monetary authorities, with a total of 60.1% of
GDP. Since 2009, Pakistan has been trying to
negotiate debt cancellation currently Pakistan spends $3 billion on debt
servicing annually to largely western nations and the International Monetary
Fund. Ministries and divisions
Departments See also
Ministry of Finance of the Government of Pakistan
Statistics Division of the Government of Pakistan
Federal Bureau of Statistics of the Government of Pakistan
Pakistan Institute of International Affairs
Gazette of Pakistan Economic Coordination Committee
Types of Government Servants in Pakistan References
External links Web gateway official Pakistan government
portal The Government of Pakistan
The President of Pakistan Senate of Pakistan
National Assembly of Pakistan Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan
Supreme Court of Pakistan List of E-Services provided by
Government of Pakistan Websites of Ministries and Government
Departments: Dmoz Pakistan Human Resource Management Jobs in
Pakistan

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