Did you know the federal government shouldn’t even be funding infrastructure? It might sound shocking, but it’s true. In fact, James Madison actually vetoed a “public works” bill funding infrastructure in 1817 calling it unconstitutional. The bill was “for constructing roads and canals, and improving the navigation of water courses, in order to facilitate, promote, and give security to internal commerce among the several States.” Virtually every American today would say that this is exactly what the feds should be doing. But the “Father of the Constitution” disagreed. Madison said: “The legislative powers vested in Congress are specified and enumerated… and it does not appear that the power proposed to be exercised by the bill is among the enumerated powers, or that it falls by any just interpretation with the power to make laws necessary and proper for carrying into executions those or other powers vested by the Constitution in the Government of the United States.” The amazing thing is that Madison actually favored the bill personally, but he vetoed it anyway, because he put the Constitution above his personal policy preferences. That’s the kind of integrity you should never count on from Washington D.C. today.