Phoenix Children’s Hospital & Bill of Rights History
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Phoenix Children’s Hospital & Bill of Rights History


>>>Coming up next on “Arizona Horizon,” Phoenix Children’s Hospital receives some national recognition from a study by “U.S. News and World Report.”>>>And we’ll hear from the author of a new book on the history of the Bill of Rights. That’s next on “Arizona Horizon.”>>>”Arizona Horizon” is made possible by contributions from the Friends of Eight, members of your Arizona PBS station. Thank you.>>>Good evening and welcome to “Arizona Horizon.” I’m Ted Simons. Phoenix Children’s Hospital is prominently noted in “U.S. News and World Report’s” latest national rankings of children’s medical institutions. Joining us now is Bob Meyer, Phoenix Children’s Hospital’s president and CEO. Good to see you again, thanks for joining us.>>Thank you.>>Well, congratulations on this. This is a national list of best children’s hospitals?>>Yeah, it’s put together every year. There’s 184 hospitals that are asked to submit data, patient volumes, etc., that could be used to analyze where you rank on a relative basis. We’re pleased we’re ranked, there’s 10 specialties, we’re in the top 50 in nine out of those 10 specialties.>>I was going to ask how the survey does go about ranking hospitals. Is it clinical outcomes?>>Quality indicators, outcomes, variety of things. Some reputational score. In fact, one of the reasons why I think younger hospitals like Phoenix Children’s are moving up in the rankings is there’s less reputation, more factual based outcomes, which is very beneficial for hospitals that are younger.>>And we should mention that “U.S. News and World Report” does this mostly for their readers to know where to go or what to look at, correct?>>It’s very similar to colleges and they do a lot of rankings of this nature but it is to tell people, consumers, based on this objective data, where would the best places to go in your localities or regions, etc.? So yes, that’s exactly what they put it together for.>>I saw that efficient and coordination of care, delivery was also prominent.>>Taking care of children in a holistic manner. Many of our patients have chronic illnesses. We see them for long periods of time. So again, all of the above is what they evaluate.>>And including resources like nurse staffing, things like that?>>Oh, nurse staffing, your programmatic development, what type of imaging equipment you have, it is very, very comprehensive on the objective side of what they’re looking for.>>And as for reputation, who exactly asked about that? Whose opinion counts there when they talk about a children’s hospital’s reputation?>>Well, actually they send out a survey to our peers, when I say our peers, about 5,000 pediatricians and pediatric specialists around the country who are asked to rank the various children’s hospitals and it’s a little bit subjective but again, a pretty accurate we think assessment from a reputational score.>>And that — you mentioned that the younger hospitals are moving up because of their reputation. Reputation is big as far as children’s health, isn’t it?>>It is very big, and it’s why if you look at the very top ones, there are the eastern children’s hospitals who have been around for 150, 200 years, children’s hospital of Pennsylvania, etc. but again, that reliance, it was 50% reputational, 50% objective. It’s now about 85-15. It’s much more objective.>>And Phoenix Children’s Hospital ranking nine of the top 10 categories, it was ranked in nine out of the top 10. Neurology, neurosurgery, 14th, cancer 16th. These sorts of things. Talk to us about advancements out there and how you look on improving those rankings.>>Well, I think it’s continually improving your programs. We’re very focused. We have four programs that are in the top 20 in the country. And they’re very focused. We call our centers of excellence, we put a lot of emphasis on them, recruiting physicians, technology, so it’s a lot of leading edge things that have been acquired but again, we recruited very heavily from around the country to bring in top specialists. This is the fourth largest children’s market in the country. And so we should have a children’s hospital that’s comparable to those other cities. That’s what we’ve been trying to build.>>And we should mention along with neurosurgery, cancer and cardiology and heart surgery, 16th, nephrology, 17th, not bad. How do you improve those?>>We continue to add to those programs. I think adding more physicians but more specialization. Good example is there’s some very specific imaging equipment we’re looking at for orthopedics as an example, which uses no radiation. So if we were to acquire that technology, again, increases our scores, etc., potentially our rankings.>>And as far as children’s health at the Phoenix Children’s Hospital, talk to us about what you guys have been doing in the past, advancements that have been made and what you’re looking for now in the future.>>Well, I think a lot of the advancements have been in technology. So, for example, we just announced a large genomic joint venture. We believe that’s sort of the future of medicine, so to speak and will cross all the service lines, all these programs that we’re talking about. So we’re recruiting physicians with genomic background in neurology, in cancer, in heart, etc. Look at it very simply, it’s a genomic service line. Again, it will be a major enhancement to those programs.>>And as far as what Phoenix Children’s Hospital takes from the survey, you look over something like this, you see the numbers, you’ve got to be pleased. What do you take from it?>>Well, I think it shows very, very well because the “U.S. News and World Report” has also given us analytics that tell us where we didn’t get points, where we rank against the people in front of us, so to speak. And so those are decisions we need to make as to whether or not we’re willing to make those kinds of investments and going back to my example of that piece of imaging technology. No radiation is a big deal.>>Yes, it is. You’ve got a children’s hospital and some folks say what’s the difference between going to a children’s hospital, a specific children’s institution, pediatrics and going to a mainline hospital that deals in pediatrics?>>I think the biggest difference is everybody that’s at a children’s hospital is specifically to taking care of children. The technology is adapted to children, etc., they’re not just small adults. The actual technology is different. But more than anything it’s the people that are involved. They’re there for one reason, which is to take care of children. We also see it in volunteers. We see it in our donors, etc., there’s just a tremendous amount of interest in it. So again, when you look at our centers of excellence, they’re completely pediatric focused.>>We’ve heard in the past that Arizona in particular, but around the country, is there a shortage of doctors, are you seeing that in pediatrics as well?>>Very much so. One of the things we do, we actually do three things. We do clinical care, education and research. So you hit on our educational pitch. So several years ago there were only three pediatric fellowships in Arizona, which are how you create pediatric specialists. So our two have now become 14. So when you get into what differentiates a children’s hospital, we’re now educating specialists in 14 different specialties and we actually have three more fellowship programs on the approval process. So again, it’s a highly differentiated, as to how you get these physicians because if you don’t do fellowships, you have to continually recruit from out of state and that’s a very, very cumbersome way to go about it.>>It may be a cumbersome way but when you wind up on the “U.S. News and World Report” rankings, makes it a little easier I would imagine?>>Well, yeah, but the reason you can do the fellowships is you’re bringing in people that can do some of this teaching and attract some of these people, as well. The hard one and I said this a lot, but the hardest recruit is the first big name. After that, they start to come because you’ve got the big name and more people want to be associated with that. We’ve seen that in cancer, we’ve seen it in neurosciences, very clearly in the heart program. We’ve got a lot of people coming here to work with the people that are here.>>Well, it sounds like things are going very well. Phoenix Children’s Hospital, congratulations on the rankings and I’ve got to think they’re going to improve even more next year.>>Well, we hope so. And, you know, we know where we can get some of those points so to speak so I think we’ll see them improve yeah.>>Well, congratulations. Good to see you again, thanks for joining us.>>You’re welcome. >>>The Colorado river has carved over 600 miles of canyons in southern Utah and northern Arizona. As sublime as these chasms are, to travelers, they posed a seemingly insurmountable problem. Just how do you get to the other side? A highway marker on U.S. 89a commemorates a successful effort that for nearly 60 years did just that: Lee’s ferry. Pioneer John D. Lee came here in 1871. He established a ferry service across the Colorado river at the only natural point for 600 miles. Lee seen here seated on his coffin was executed in 1877 for his role in the mountain meadows massacre when 120 immigrants heading to California were murdered in Utah. The ferry operated for 52 more years, transporting thousands of hikers, horses, wagons, and even small automobiles across the river. Only the railroad and finally, in 1929, the Navajo bridge, made lee’s ferry obsolete. Today, the original Navajo bridge is reserved for pedestrians, while the new Navajo bridge built beside it in 1995 caters to cars and trucks. While the ferry itself is long gone, the name remains. Lee’s ferry is now the terminus for thousands of awe-struck sightseers rafting on the mighty Colorado river.>>>There’s a new book on the history of the Bill of Rights. The book is titled “Bills, Quills, And Stills,” and is sub-titled, “An Annotated, Illustrated, and Illuminated History of the Bill of Rights. The book certainly is all of those things and more. Here now is Robert McWhiter. Welcome to “Arizona Horizon.”>>Oh, thanks for having me.>>Congratulations on this book. It’s one of the things where you pick up and you wind up going through it. Does the world need another book on the Bill of Rights?>>Absolutely, especially mine.>>Why did you write this? Why do you think we need this?>>The amount of kind of civic education in the schools is much less than it was and what I wanted to try to do is write a book that dealt with these issues, the fundamentals of our country, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights are the owner’s manual of the country and I wanted to do that in a way that tied in modern cultural references to show this is important today.>>And I should mention that you can’t really say too much, it is illustrated and it is annotated. Sometimes, there are more footnotes than text and there are pictures abundantly illustrated on every single page. Why did you go that route?>>I wanted to try to do something new. Anybody can find a dusty old tome on the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. And you know I have plenty of footnotes in there for people who like dusty old tomes, it is there but for people who like to see references and visuals and how it ties in, that’s what I wanted to try to do and make it relevant and interesting.>>And to keep it from being boring.>>Keep it from being boring.>>We’ve got enough textbooks on the Constitution and the Bill of Rights where that is safely achieved. You write there are many incorrect notions about the Bill of Rights. What does that mean?>>Well, a lot of people have all these notions like oh, it’s in the Bill of Rights and my constitutional rights. The Bill of Rights deal with certain specific things. They didn’t even apply much to normal people for the first 100 years of the republic. It took the civil war amendments to give them kind of scope and breadth that we think of today. The right to free speech is only the first part of the 20th century. We had the free speech cases, applying the First Amendment to our daily lives. So these things have kind of grown over time. And that’s what’s important and that’s again the cultural references coming in. What does freedom of the press mean? What does it mean for a modern movie today?>>And we should mention you also go into prehistory there of the Bill of Rights and noted that many of the framers of the Constitution didn’t think a Bill of Rights was necessary.>>No, no. They thought it would be redundant. They said if you want to write, you can guarantee that your Congress will make sure you get your rights or the House of Representatives, right? The president’s elected, it’s not like we have a king. So in every way we already have a bill of rights by the structure of the Constitution. That argument that they made with great sincerity proved to be totally wrong. Madison when he first made it was wrong, Hamilton when he first made it, they made it in the federalist papers. They were wrong. They wanted a Bill of Rights, they wanted a written guarantee and that’s where you get the Bill of Rights.>>We should mention that Patrick Henry was key in this whole situation, wasn’t he?>>Oh, yeah. Patrick Henry didn’t really like Madison. And Patrick Henry had kept Madison from being one of the two senators from Virginia. At that period in time, it was the legislatures that chose United States senators. So he kept Madison from becoming a senator. So Madison was stuck trying to win a house in the House of Representatives. And Henry kind of gerrymandered him into the same district against another future president, James Monroe, who was kind of George Washington’s aide to camp. Madison was fighting for his political life and Patrick Henry most people don’t know was an anti-federalist. He didn’t like the federal Constitution. So Madison had to do two things. He had to defend the Constitution that he basically wrote, and he had to get reelected. Or elected for the first time to Congress. So his idea was forget what I said in the federalist papers, just ignore that, I’m going to be the champion for a Bill of Rights and he was and unlike a lot of politicians, you’ve got to say this. He lived up to his campaign promise.>>Yes, he did. Even if he changed his mind. He changed his mind and didn’t have a problem with it. Politicians can do that. All right. What is a right?>>What is a right? Well, okay. How far back do you want to go? If you want to go to ancient Rome, what a right was, was what being a Roman citizen gave you. If you were in ancient Greece, it’s what your city state gave you. You get these radical notions coming off from John locke what a right is what you have inherent to you as a being. It is inalienable. You can’t take it away.>>God-given.>>God given, although or by some notion of social contract. If you notice Jefferson when he wrote the declaration didn’t say we get these from god. It is from nature’s god, providential. You get a little tension there, right? So a right is what’s inherent to you. The trouble with these rights in the state of nature is if you try to exercise them, big guys beat you up, okay. So the state of nature is not secure for you. We need to have government, we need to have society to give us what we inherently have. Now, why is that important? That’s what we argue about today. No don’t do because it’s my right to do this. We still live in government. And every right is subject to limitation. I’m pretty much a free speech absolutist but there are certain things I can’t say. Now, the famous dictum was you can’t go into a crowded movie theater and falsely yell fire. You can’t do it falsely and be expected not to be prosecuted. That is a First Amendment limit. We can’t agree to have a conspiracy to rob a bank, we don’t have a First Amendment right to have that conversation and not get prosecuted for it. There’s limits and all rights have duties and responsibilities as well as benefits.>>And with that in mind as we continue moving towards the Bill of Rights and how it was founded, the role of slavery in the formation of the Bill of Rights. It was huge.>>It was huge. Let’s do two amendments. The second amendment. Many of these southern states were concerned about maintaining their right to bear arms so they could have patrols to guard against insurrection from slaves. That was specifically what they were worried about. They did not send arms or men to the continental army because they wanted to make sure they had their slave patrols intact to guard against insurrection. So that was clear. Fourth Amendment, Fourth Amendment protects you from unreasonable search and seizures. They can’t come in looking for contraband. The contraband usually today are drugs, cocaine, whatever. The contraband of that time was molasses, and the molasses was in New England, it was converted to rum, the rum was taken to the coast of Africa, 110 gallons could buy you a human being, which is about $2,900 in U.S. dollars today. That human being was brought over, he was sent to the southern United States where he grew sugar to make more molasses which went back up to New England to be converted to rum, it was the triangle trade. Cutting great Britain out of the trade, which was pissing great Britain off. So the entire reason we have that Fourth Amendment is to protect from unreasonable searches and seizures because the British government had what was called a general search warrant, writ of assistance, to go break into your house to look for contraband molasses, they could look in your trunks, everywhere to look for contraband molasses without specificity or particularity, which is what the Fourth Amendment today requires.>>And obviously slavery involved there, also. I guess that explains “Bills, Quills, and Stills,” the title of your book.>>Prodigious amounts of alcohol and by the way alcohol had a different place. They liked alcohol the same way but let’s say you had an ache and pain. You couldn’t pop a Tylenol. You probably drank some beer or let’s say you wanted some vitamin c in the morning in the middle of the winter well, you drank a pint of hard cider. That’s where you got your vitamin c. They drank a lot more alcohol than we do, let’s put it that way.>>You write that every right has a purpose and every right has a history. Explain.>>Well, you trace everything back. Now, when we say oh, you know, my rights. A lot of what we mean are actually after the Bill of Rights was written. For instance, right to universal education. The remains never provided for that. We have done that. We have grown and expanded. So with various purposes that have grown up over time, we have provided this sense of rights and we have expanded that sense of rights. Now, the big debate today for instance is the right to universal healthcare. The framers never thought about that. Most industrialized nations realized we need that and we are arguing about it as vehemently today as the framers did about various rights they wrote down.>>Wasn’t the ninth amendment the forgotten amendment that kind of includes this idea of things — talk to us about the ninth amendment.>>Justice Robert Jackson said I was trying to think about what those rights were and I’m sorry I just can’t think of one right offhand. That’s not his exact words but this mystery. There’s still a mystery is what he said. And Robert boric said ninth amendment is an ink blot. The ninth amendment are all these things like rights that aren’t retained. It’s a concept of natural law. We’ve written down certain rights in the Bill of Rights but all those other rights, you still have. In other words, the government doesn’t get them. So the ninth amendment was intended as kind of a catchall to make sure it said that all of your rights that you have, inalienable to you, you still get, even though we wrote down the Bill of Rights. Some of the early arguments against putting a Bill of Rights and Hamilton advanced this is you can’t write these things down because if you write them down, it’s going to assume the government gets the rest that you don’t write and we can’t write every one down.>>Which moves us then to the 10th amendment.>>The 10th amendment.>>And that is now — 10th amendment is amazing. You go for decades without hearing about the 10th amendment.>>And the Supreme Court case versus bond, it’s in play after 210 years. It’s all of a sudden the 10th amendment in play. The 10th amendment is more about states’ rights. But the interesting thing, it says all the rights that are not specified for the federal government go to the states or to the people. Well, over time, we have read or to the people as more important than to the states. In other words, the federal government, we contract individually with the federal government. We’re Arizonans, right? But it’s not us as Arizonans getting our rights from the federal government; it’s us as individuals. We can cut Arizona out of the equation and say hey, state of Arizona, you can’t do this because you’re violating my First Amendment rights. We don’t look to the Arizona Constitution on that. And that’s what the 10th amendment, which was originally intended more to protect state” rights, has evolved over time to be an individual right.>>So we’ve got these 10 amendments here and obviously, it’s a big book, lots of photos, lots of drawings, lots of pictures, annotation just everywhere. How do you focus all of this into making sure each amendment gets its proper perspective, historical narrative? How long did this take?>>Eight to 10 years, with difficulty is how you take it. It takes a lot of time. I’ll tell you the hardest chapter by far was the last chapter I wrote which was the First Amendment chapter because in the First Amendment, if you take almost any issue of the culture wars today, it involves the First Amendment, freedom of religion, free exercise of religion, freedom from being established, in other words, I need to be from you establishing your religion over me, freedom of speech, freedom of press, everything is there, and that was difficult. Do you deal with it as two separate amendments or do you deal with it as one? And I took a leap of faith and what I came up with was what they were arguing they wanted to speak about was religion. In other words, they were intricately involved. Now, I personally am not a proponent of this idea that they created a Christian nation. I don’t believe that’s what they intended to do but the basis, what they wanted to speak about was their creed and what their creed were was whatever creed they had when they came here. And that’s what the First Amendment grew out of.>>What kind of reaction are you getting so far?>>So far, it’s been positive. We’ll see. There’s stuff in here, for instance on the second amendment chapter, I had people that are vehement individual right gun advocates that liked the chapter and I’ve had people that believe in serious gun control and they liked the chapter. I tried to be as balanced as I could. There is a historical argument to support an individual rights notion of the second amendment and a collectivist rights. It’s all part of the militia. And you can take history and there’s enough history there to support either argument. And I try to be as fair as possible on each one as I go through. That being said, when I hear different arguments about the Constitution, when I argue about the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, there are arguments that I disagree with but I think are valid arguments with which I simply disagree, and then there’s arguments that are simply not valid. They don’t historically work. There’s no historical support. And I try to as politely as I can point out that distinction.>>You did a great job. Highly recommended, I hate to say it but it’s kind of an easy read. It’s easy on the eyes and job well done, congratulations.>>Thank you very much.>>Thank you for being here.>>Good, good.>>>Tuesday, the department of child safety Director Greg McKay will join us in studio to discuss his vision for the office as well as recent high-profile child-abuse cases. and 10:00 on the next “Arizona Horizon.” That is it for now. I’m Ted Simons. Thank you so much for joining us. You have a great evening. >>>”Arizona Horizon” is made possible by contributions from the Friends of Eight, members of your Arizona PBS station. Thank you.>>>Support for eight comes from viewers like you and from…>>>ASU’s ira A. Fulton schools of engineering strive to advance research, education and industry to transform our economy. Ideas, talent and technology for Arizona. You can learn more at engineering.ASU.edu/TV.>>>Virginia G. piper charitable trust. Committed to changing lives and strengthening community. Through investments in nonprofits and strategic initiatives. More information at pipertrust.org.>>>Later on 8-HD…>>>Next time on “Antiques Roadshow,” vintage St. Louis. [ Laughter ]>>Can you guess what values went up, down or stayed the same? Find out next time on “Antiques Roadshow.” on 8-HD. >>>The act of murder, whether in fiction or real life, has long enthralled us.>>There you go.>>But why are we so drawn to such a heinous crime?>>We’re dealing with a murder here that was particularly horrendous.>>Our fascination with killers.>>He didn’t look like a villain at all.>>And how it all began in England on a very British murder. on 8-HD.>>>Tony and Richard were one of the first same-sex couples in the world to be legally married but one letter from the U.S. government would send them on a decades-long struggle for equality.>>We still believe that love will win.>>Limited partnership. on 8-HD.>>>See this play set? There used to be a pick-up truck sitting there, a truck I didn’t use and didn’t want so I donated it to public television and they took care of everything. In addition, supporting my favorite programs, I earned a tax deduction. Turn something you don’t need into something you really want. 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