• The Anti-Federalist Papers | Cato 3
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    The Anti-Federalist Papers | Cato 3

    To the Citizens of the State of New York, In the close of my last introductory address, I told you, that my object in future would be to take up this new form of national government, to compare it with the experience and opinions of the most sensible and approved political authors, and to show you that its principles, and the exercise of them will be dangerous to your liberty and happiness. Although I am conscious that this is an arduous undertaking, yet I will perform it to the best of my ability. The freedom, equality, and independence which you enjoyed by nature, induced you to consent to a political…

  • The Anti-Federalist Papers | Cato 4
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    The Anti-Federalist Papers | Cato 4

    To the CITIZENS of the STATE of NEW-YORK. Admitting, however, that the vast extent of America, together with the various other reasons which I offered you in my last number, against the practicability of the just exercise of the new government are insufficient to convince you; still it is an undeniable truth, that its several parts are either possessed of principles, which you have heretofore considered as ruinous, and that others are omitted which you have established as fundamental to your political security, and must in their operation, I will venture to assert-fetter your tongues and minds, enchain your bodies, and ultimately extinguish all that is great and noble in…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 85
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 85

    FEDERALIST No. 85. Concluding Remarks From MCLEAN’s Edition, New York. Wednesday, May 28, 1788 HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: ACCORDING to the formal division of the subject of these papers, announced in my first number, there would appear still to remain for discussion two points: “the analogy of the proposed government to your own State constitution,” and “the additional security which its adoption will afford to republican government, to liberty, and to property.” But these heads have been so fully anticipated and exhausted in the progress of the work, that it would now scarcely be possible to do any thing more than repeat, in a…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 22
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 22

    FEDERALIST No. 22 The Same Subject Continued (Other Defects of the Present Confederation) From the New York Packet. Friday, December 14, 1787. HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: IN ADDITION to the defects already enumerated in the existing federal system, there are others of not less importance, which concur in rendering it altogether unfit for the administration of the affairs of the Union. The want of a power to regulate commerce is by all parties allowed to be of the number. The utility of such a power has been anticipated under the first head of our inquiries; and for this reason, as well as from the…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 28
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 28

    FEDERALIST No. 28. The Same Subject Continued (The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered) For the Independent Journal. Wednesday, December 26, 1787 HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: THAT there may happen cases in which the national government may be necessitated to resort to force, cannot be denied. Our own experience has corroborated the lessons taught by the examples of other nations; that emergencies of this sort will sometimes arise in all societies, however constituted; that seditions and insurrections are, unhappily, maladies as inseparable from the body politic as tumors and eruptions from the natural body; that the idea…

  • The Anti-Federalist Papers | Federal Farmer II
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    The Anti-Federalist Papers | Federal Farmer II

    Dear Sir, The essential parts of a free and good government are a full and equal representation of the people in the legislature, and the jury trial of the vicinage in the administration of justice a full and equal representation, is that which possesses the same interests, feelings, opinions, and views the people themselves would were they all assembled a fair representation, therefore, should be so regulated, that every order of men in the community, according to the common course of elections, can have a share in it in order to allow professional men, merchants, traders, farmers, mechanics, &c. to bring a just proportion of their best informed men respectively…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 21
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 21

    FEDERALIST No. 21 Other Defects of the Present Confederation For the Independent Journal. HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: HAVING in the three last numbers taken a summary review of the principal circumstances and events which have depicted the genius and fate of other confederate governments, I shall now proceed in the enumeration of the most important of those defects which have hitherto disappointed our hopes from the system established among ourselves. To form a safe and satisfactory judgment of the proper remedy, it is absolutely necessary that we should be well acquainted with the extent and malignity of the disease. The next most palpable defect…

  • The Anti-Federalist Papers | Brutus 4
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    The Anti-Federalist Papers | Brutus 4

    To the People of the State of New-York. There can be no free government where the people are not possessed of the power of making the laws by which they are governed, either in their own persons, or by others substituted in their stead. Experience has taught mankind, that legislation by representatives is the most eligible, and the only practicable mode in which the people of any country can exercise this right, either prudently or beneficially. But then, it is a matter of the highest importance, in forming this representation, that it be so constituted as to be capable of understanding the true interests of the society for which it…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 58
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 58

    FEDERALIST No. 58. Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands. Considered For the Independent Journal Wednesday, February 20, 1788. MADISON To the People of the State of New York: THE remaining charge against the House of Representatives, which I am to examine, is grounded on a supposition that the number of members will not be augmented from time to time, as the progress of population may demand. It has been admitted, that this objection, if well supported, would have great weight. The following observations will show that, like most other objections against the Constitution, it can only proceed from a partial…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 60
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 60

    FEDERALIST No. 60. The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members) From The Independent Journal. Saturday, February 23, 1788. HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: WE HAVE seen, that an uncontrollable power over the elections to the federal government could not, without hazard, be committed to the State legislatures. Let us now see, what would be the danger on the other side; that is, from confiding the ultimate right of regulating its own elections to the Union itself. It is not pretended, that this right would ever be used for the exclusion of any State from its share in…