• The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 23
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 23

    FEDERALIST No. 23. The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union From the New York Packet. Tuesday, December 18, 1787. HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: THE necessity of a Constitution, at least equally energetic with the one proposed, to the preservation of the Union, is the point at the examination of which we are now arrived. This inquiry will naturally divide itself into three branches—the objects to be provided for by the federal government, the quantity of power necessary to the accomplishment of those objects, the persons upon whom that power ought to operate. Its distribution…

  • The Anti-Federalist Papers | John DeWitt 2
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    The Anti-Federalist Papers | John DeWitt 2

    To the Free Citizens of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In my last address upon the proceedings of the Federal Convention I endeavored to convince you of the importance of the subject, that it required a cool, dispassionate examination, and a thorough investigation, previous to its adoption — that it was not a mere revision and amendment of our first Confederation, but a compleat System for the future government of the United States, and I may now add in preference to, and in exclusion of, all others heretofore adopted. — It is not TEMPORARY, but in its nature, PERPETUAL. — It is not designed that you shall be annually called, either…

  • The Anti-Federalist Papers | Federal Farmer 17
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    The Anti-Federalist Papers | Federal Farmer 17

    Dear sir, I believe the people of the United States are full in the opinion, that a free and mild government can be preserved in their extensive territories, only under the substantial forms of a federal republic. As several of the ablest advocates for the system proposed, have acknowledged this (and I hope the confessions they have published will be preserved and remembered) I shall not take up time to establish this point. A question then arises, how far that system partakes of a federal republic. — I observed in a former letter, that it appears to be the first important step to a consolidation of the states; that its…

  • The Anti-Federalist Papers | Federal Farmer 16
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    The Anti-Federalist Papers | Federal Farmer 16

    Dear sir, Having gone through with the organization of the government, I shall now proceed to examine more particularly those clauses which respect its powers. I shall begin with those articles and stipulations which are necessary for accurately ascertaining the extent of powers, and what is given, and for guarding, limiting, and restraining them in their exercise. We often find, these articles and stipulations placed in bills of rights; but they may as well be incorporated in the body of the constitution, as selected and placed by themselves. The constitution, or whole social compact, is but one instrument, no more or less, than a certain number of articles or stipulations…

  • The Anti-Federalist Papers | Cato 3
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    The Anti-Federalist Papers | Cato 3

    To the Citizens of the State of New York, In the close of my last introductory address, I told you, that my object in future would be to take up this new form of national government, to compare it with the experience and opinions of the most sensible and approved political authors, and to show you that its principles, and the exercise of them will be dangerous to your liberty and happiness. Although I am conscious that this is an arduous undertaking, yet I will perform it to the best of my ability. The freedom, equality, and independence which you enjoyed by nature, induced you to consent to a political…

  • The Anti-Federalist Papers | Cato 4
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    The Anti-Federalist Papers | Cato 4

    To the CITIZENS of the STATE of NEW-YORK. Admitting, however, that the vast extent of America, together with the various other reasons which I offered you in my last number, against the practicability of the just exercise of the new government are insufficient to convince you; still it is an undeniable truth, that its several parts are either possessed of principles, which you have heretofore considered as ruinous, and that others are omitted which you have established as fundamental to your political security, and must in their operation, I will venture to assert-fetter your tongues and minds, enchain your bodies, and ultimately extinguish all that is great and noble in…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 85
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 85

    FEDERALIST No. 85. Concluding Remarks From MCLEAN’s Edition, New York. Wednesday, May 28, 1788 HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: ACCORDING to the formal division of the subject of these papers, announced in my first number, there would appear still to remain for discussion two points: “the analogy of the proposed government to your own State constitution,” and “the additional security which its adoption will afford to republican government, to liberty, and to property.” But these heads have been so fully anticipated and exhausted in the progress of the work, that it would now scarcely be possible to do any thing more than repeat, in a…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 22
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 22

    FEDERALIST No. 22 The Same Subject Continued (Other Defects of the Present Confederation) From the New York Packet. Friday, December 14, 1787. HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: IN ADDITION to the defects already enumerated in the existing federal system, there are others of not less importance, which concur in rendering it altogether unfit for the administration of the affairs of the Union. The want of a power to regulate commerce is by all parties allowed to be of the number. The utility of such a power has been anticipated under the first head of our inquiries; and for this reason, as well as from the…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 28
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 28

    FEDERALIST No. 28. The Same Subject Continued (The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered) For the Independent Journal. Wednesday, December 26, 1787 HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: THAT there may happen cases in which the national government may be necessitated to resort to force, cannot be denied. Our own experience has corroborated the lessons taught by the examples of other nations; that emergencies of this sort will sometimes arise in all societies, however constituted; that seditions and insurrections are, unhappily, maladies as inseparable from the body politic as tumors and eruptions from the natural body; that the idea…

  • The Anti-Federalist Papers | Federal Farmer II
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    The Anti-Federalist Papers | Federal Farmer II

    Dear Sir, The essential parts of a free and good government are a full and equal representation of the people in the legislature, and the jury trial of the vicinage in the administration of justice a full and equal representation, is that which possesses the same interests, feelings, opinions, and views the people themselves would were they all assembled a fair representation, therefore, should be so regulated, that every order of men in the community, according to the common course of elections, can have a share in it in order to allow professional men, merchants, traders, farmers, mechanics, &c. to bring a just proportion of their best informed men respectively…