• The Anti-Federalist Papers | Federal Farmer II
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    The Anti-Federalist Papers | Federal Farmer II

    Dear Sir, The essential parts of a free and good government are a full and equal representation of the people in the legislature, and the jury trial of the vicinage in the administration of justice a full and equal representation, is that which possesses the same interests, feelings, opinions, and views the people themselves would were they all assembled a fair representation, therefore, should be so regulated, that every order of men in the community, according to the common course of elections, can have a share in it in order to allow professional men, merchants, traders, farmers, mechanics, &c. to bring a just proportion of their best informed men respectively…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 21
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 21

    FEDERALIST No. 21 Other Defects of the Present Confederation For the Independent Journal. HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: HAVING in the three last numbers taken a summary review of the principal circumstances and events which have depicted the genius and fate of other confederate governments, I shall now proceed in the enumeration of the most important of those defects which have hitherto disappointed our hopes from the system established among ourselves. To form a safe and satisfactory judgment of the proper remedy, it is absolutely necessary that we should be well acquainted with the extent and malignity of the disease. The next most palpable defect…

  • The Anti-Federalist Papers | Brutus 4
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    The Anti-Federalist Papers | Brutus 4

    To the People of the State of New-York. There can be no free government where the people are not possessed of the power of making the laws by which they are governed, either in their own persons, or by others substituted in their stead. Experience has taught mankind, that legislation by representatives is the most eligible, and the only practicable mode in which the people of any country can exercise this right, either prudently or beneficially. But then, it is a matter of the highest importance, in forming this representation, that it be so constituted as to be capable of understanding the true interests of the society for which it…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 58
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 58

    FEDERALIST No. 58. Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands. Considered For the Independent Journal Wednesday, February 20, 1788. MADISON To the People of the State of New York: THE remaining charge against the House of Representatives, which I am to examine, is grounded on a supposition that the number of members will not be augmented from time to time, as the progress of population may demand. It has been admitted, that this objection, if well supported, would have great weight. The following observations will show that, like most other objections against the Constitution, it can only proceed from a partial…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 60
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 60

    FEDERALIST No. 60. The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members) From The Independent Journal. Saturday, February 23, 1788. HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: WE HAVE seen, that an uncontrollable power over the elections to the federal government could not, without hazard, be committed to the State legislatures. Let us now see, what would be the danger on the other side; that is, from confiding the ultimate right of regulating its own elections to the Union itself. It is not pretended, that this right would ever be used for the exclusion of any State from its share in…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 26
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 26

    FEDERALIST No. 26. The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered. For the Independent Journal. Saturday, December 22, 1788 HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: IT WAS a thing hardly to be expected that in a popular revolution the minds of men should stop at that happy mean which marks the salutary boundary between POWER and PRIVILEGE, and combines the energy of government with the security of private rights. A failure in this delicate and important point is the great source of the inconveniences we experience, and if we are not cautious to avoid a repetition of the error, in…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 82
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 82

    FEDERALIST No. 82. The Judiciary Continued. From McLEAN’s Edition, New York. Wednesday, May 28, 1788 HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: THE erection of a new government, whatever care or wisdom may distinguish the work, cannot fail to originate questions of intricacy and nicety; and these may, in a particular manner, be expected to flow from the establishment of a constitution founded upon the total or partial incorporation of a number of distinct sovereignties. ‘Tis time only that can mature and perfect so compound a system, can liquidate the meaning of all the parts, and can adjust them to each other in a harmonious and consistent…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 50
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 50

    FEDERALIST No. 50. Periodical Appeals to the People Considered From the New York Packet. Tuesday, February 5, 1788. MADISON To the People of the State of New York: IT MAY be contended, perhaps, that instead of OCCASIONAL appeals to the people, which are liable to the objections urged against them, PERIODICAL appeals are the proper and adequate means of PREVENTING AND CORRECTING INFRACTIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION. It will be attended to, that in the examination of these expedients, I confine myself to their aptitude for ENFORCING the Constitution, by keeping the several departments of power within their due bounds, without particularly considering them as provisions for ALTERING the Constitution itself.…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 9
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 9

    FEDERALIST No. 9. The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection For the Independent Journal. Wednesday, November 21, 1787 HAMILTON To the People of the State of New York: A FIRM Union will be of the utmost moment to the peace and liberty of the States, as a barrier against domestic faction and insurrection. It is impossible to read the history of the petty republics of Greece and Italy without feeling sensations of horror and disgust at the distractions with which they were continually agitated, and at the rapid succession of revolutions by which they were kept in a state of perpetual vibration between the extremes of tyranny…

  • The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 54
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    The Federalist Papers | Federalist No. 54

    FEDERALIST No. 54. The Apportionment of Members Among the States From the New York Packet. Tuesday, February 12, 1788. MADISON To the People of the State of New York: THE next view which I shall take of the House of Representatives relates to the appointment of its members to the several States which is to be determined by the same rule with that of direct taxes. It is not contended that the number of people in each State ought not to be the standard for regulating the proportion of those who are to represent the people of each State. The establishment of the same rule for the appointment of taxes,…