The Little Rock Nine Explained: US History Review
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The Little Rock Nine Explained: US History Review

Hey guys welcome to hip hughes history civil rights is on the agenda today. We’re about to take an episode from 1957 the Little Rock nine and serve it up to you on a bed of learning Who’s this lecture for [we’ll] certainly it’s aimed [at] Middle school and high school students if you’re in an American history course not only do You need to understand civil rights But you need to have a concrete event that you can write about and really kind of wrap your head around Certainly if you’re in college, and you’re taking an American history course and you don’t know what the little rock [mine] Is you’re in big [big] trouble? and if you’re walking around as a living breathing human being an American citizen or anywhere in the world And you haven’t heard about this event [diary] [th]. I’m glad you’re here So sit back and relax and hopefully you’ll be able to digest some learning that hip use is about to serve up dinner Ding-Dong here, we go all Right guys here. We go september fourth the September 24th 1957 is kind of the Catalog dates of the Crisis We call the Little Rock nine And before we explain to you basically what happened and the very simple answer is we’re going to integrate the Little Rock school System and really put some teeth into Brown versus board of Ed We really need to understand the 14th amendment first so travel back with me here. We go back to Post-Civil war so following the civil war is a condition free Entry the Southern States had to agree [for] the to the fourteenth Amendment [and] What the fourteenth [amendment] is designed to do is to protect African Americans in their Southern States from their Southern governments? This is a change in Federalism really to avoid past sins and to make sure that these new Freedmen are going to be able to enjoy their full rights of citizens of the United States and part of the language of the [fourteenth] [Amendment]
No, state Shall Deny its citizens equal protection And there’s other parts like due process and we can talk about all that good stuff in other lectures but it’s that equal protection part that is going to be turned on its head in Plessy versus Ferguson, [so] if we go to 1896 the Supreme Court Rules in Plessy [Brief] Ferguson that Separate can be equal that. [it] is segregation is allowable Constitutionally, and this is what develops in the Jim crow Separate everything and certainly separate schools. So that’s where we’re going to go now We see that schools are segregated in the south because of the ruling plessy versus Ferguson The 14th Amendment doesn’t have any life to it. If it was a tiger. It would be a toothless tiger How scary is that a toothless tiger so let’s put some teeth into this baby in the little Rock nine So here we are in 1954 with carrying Jim crow on our back from class [II] versus Ferguson We have this giant toothless tiger the 14th amendment that really doesn’t mean anything So we need the supreme court to take action because legislators aren’t legislators aren’t doing that normally in our political system We like when congress does things when [legislatures] do things, but if they’re not taking action and civil rights are being denied This is where judicial review becomes really important I call it snack power rather than having to go through the long tedious process of lawmaking they can just declare Kind of a practice to be unconstitutional And in this case basically the Jim crow practice of separating students by race in our public school [system] And that’s exactly what brown versus board of education declares that separate is inherently unequal Right on the N-Double-A-Cp the national association for [the] advancement of colored persons under the direction of the lawyer Thurgood? Marshall that’s a very important name to know and you can see third good on the wall right there who will later become the first? African American first Supreme court Justice appointed by LBJ, but right now. He successfully argues that Plessy needs to be overturned and that our school systems that Linda brown little girl in Brown versus board of education Was inherently having her rights? Violated because [she] wasn’t allowed to go to the best school in her neighborhood close to her home But she was being bused to a all-black school, and this is that Jim crow system. So now that we have that decision That’s all it is right, Andrew Jackson famously declared after Worchester versus Georgia when the Indian removal [act] basically was the play Unconstitutional John Marshall has made this decision [now]. Let him go and force it So it needs enforcement something needs to happen the Southern States are going to just jump to their feet be like oh, we lost Alright, let’s integrate damn we need Something and this is a little rock nine So look, Arkansas would be considered to be more of a moderate Southern state definitely already had some Experience with integration their bus system was previously integrated I believe there [are] african-Americans at the university of Arkansas and it was the board of education And little rock that decided that they were going to do this gradual integration program nothing like the n-Double-A-Cp Wanted where we real they really wanted full integration, but it was decided [I] think as early as nineteen I think 54 55 that 57 was going to be the year this gave them kind of two or three years to plan and the N-Double-A-Cp Had a part in choosing those nine students. They were chosen based on their grades and their attendance and in the fall of 1957 they were to show up to school And it really was assumed that this would be a pretty seamless process And then we bring in politics into the situation The Governor orval Fabius was facing reelection the next year. He was a democrat It’s really important to remember that democrats back then they’re the racist party through the Ku Klux Klan it’s the party of the old South [is] the party of Slavery and segregation ilysm and even though orville fabious was a moderate segregationist whenever You’re facing a primary whenever you’re facing like a race with other people in your political party you have to move to [the] extremes of your party and the extremes of the democratic party back then are liberals, [they’re] [segregationists], so orville has to make his peace with Segregationist, so they’re all telling [him] we’re not going to let this happen on September 4th us the segregationist will be Down there at Little Rock high school making sure that these nine children these black kids don’t get into that high school So [world–all] makes a political decision to back the segregation. What are the girls Elizabeth Eckford? showed up that day alone But nevertheless when they show up they see the national guard the Arkansas national guard and inside They were probably thinking for a few seconds yeah, baby. We got protection But fabious did not call out the national guard to protect the black children Oh, no, he called them out to protect the school from the black children They are there in a defensive manner to make sure that these nine black kids Don’t get in so or [bo] has been to the segregation of forces not only that but like every Kkk member and like their their best friend showed [up] that day They were bused in and there were cars from all over the deep south really Making this a conflict between the segregationist or the Southern States and the federal government So on TV, and I think this is really important um it appears as though cats are eating dogs [I] think that for the first time in a long time Northerners are having to face racism on their television screens and the news To see that all these white angry faces are keeping nine kids from getting an education is really going to be a Blow to the racists that they’re going to demand something happen but nothing happened on that day in fact on that day the children were turned around not even that, but but Elizabeth Eckford one of the African-American young women was Separated from the group and she was almost mauled by a white crowd She was spit on and Racial epithets and they were going to attack her and a little white lady kind of grabbed her and Escorted her to the bus [and] kind of saved her [life] back then but the next step is really Important because now the nation is in an uproar we see that this racism is going on in a sense the Segregationist of one it was a civil war the [south] won that day So the president at that time was dwight, eisenhower and many people were looking for dwight for some kind of enforcement what are you going to do about this and Eisenhower a republican and a moderate is a gradualist that he really is trying to kind of walk the goldilocks line here He doesn’t really want to take one side or the [other] he’s kind of waffling He doesn’t want to piss off the Southern States and the democratic segregation lists And he doesn’t want to piss off the progressives and the n-double A-C-P He kind of trying to appeal to the middle, and that’s really hard to do when you have something I think that is this clear-cut wrong so he calls orville [a] fabius to a Meeting and they need at his kind of a summer home and I think in Rhode Island and he’s kind of guaranteed by the governor of Arkansas that the integration will happen that you know he’ll go back and He will settle this once and for all so when orville goes back And this is fabius is a weird cat rather than taking the side of [the] african-American children. He did something. That’s kind of unfathomable He pulls the national guard out [altogether]. So when they show up the next day all there is is racist faces There’s no national guard I mean the national guard was there to defend [the] school against the African-American children the first time but they also kind of kept the peace from things from getting on a [head] But now it’s just a white mob It’s just the Klan so Man what a day that was the children kind of narrowly escaped into the school the crowd goes crazy When they find out these nine black kids got into the school they attack the black press they’re up in an uproar um One story was that one of the African American children overheard one of the deputies the Sheriff’s talking about a plan to have the Children draw straws and the one who lost would be handed over to the crowd So the crowd could [lynch] that child and then the other eight would make their escape It’s just craziness luckily the denying kind of get out of there, but again on TV It looks like the inmates are running the asylum And I [cite] a thesis in class that I use all the time and it’s a really great Thesis to use here stink don’t stink until it’s in your backyard Right, so whether it’s Emmett till on look magazine or now whether it’s on Your TV These nine kids almost getting lynched by a white mob action must be taken The temperature the fire underneath of the government is being turned up at this point by the north So eisenhower Has to do something so what is eisenhower tooth he puts teeth in the tiger, baby That’s right. He calls out the hundred and first airborne of the us army and they land a power shooter I don’t they [bury] [troop], but they go right into Little rock the next day And those kids showed up the next day with machine guns baby on Jeeps and what a great sight [to] see these nine kids walking in a little rock Arkansas with the federal government kind of Surrounding them showing the nation that the federal government is going to support all civil rights Even when the state governments are going after them, so this is the t of brown versus board of education And you should follow up and do some research It’s a great story reading about the nine children and their lives that year as they were escorted [from] class to class You can’t underestimate the violence that those kids had to put up with as they went through [that] year One of the girls they tried to light on fire When she was in the bathroom stall another one of the girls [had] acid thrown into her face They were tripped on broken glass They were constantly harassed as really you see racial attitudes changing as the integration occurs It’s really quite an [amazing] story, so there you go guys civil rights, n-Double-A-Cp the lobbying group Brown versus board of education [federalism] this is a great thing to talk about if you’re talking about the relationship between states and Feds and how the Supremacy clause and judicial review give the federal government the ability to sometimes override state action and even though Arkansas and Governor Fabius tried to kind of Nullify the federal action at the end of the day. It’s the army baby What are you gonna? Do when they come for you? Have [you] [sister] [II] guys I hope you enjoy lecture make sure you check out the links below in the description We have tons of other edu gurus and edu all-stars out there that are making brains wrinkle all over the world and if you haven’t subscribed Wth what are you doing? How am I [going] [to] do this if you don’t subscribe? Press the Dong Subscribe button you make me curse So there you go [bags] where attention goes energy flows if [yous] is out, isn’t that right no? Never talks back. See you guys later


  • P.M. Laberge

    In Travels with Charley, John Steinbeck writes about his witnessing of this. Very emotional.
    VERY well done Hip!

  • Un3arth1yGalaxy4

    A good book that tells a story of one of the Little Rock Nine is "Warriors Don't Cry" I think I read it freshmen year in high school.

  • Coco

    You are one stylish dude. I love it!! I love your videos and I was thinking if you can do a series about what you believe is imperative for every American citizen to know about this country's history.

  • Marcel Bassie Jansen

    Always appreciating your vids Keith. People always said "look at that dumb clown". That has changed now, ty

  • Walter Clark

    I was distracted by the mispronunciation of Faubus. But it was –like all of Keith's lessons, excellent.
    Here's something to think about:–>
    It is generally accepted by liberals that force results in a response of force and that changing of hearts is achieved through non-violence. Could it be that when Ike sent in his troops there was only the semblance of change-of-heart? It seems to me that more was achieved by the civil right MOVEMENT than by the civil rights laws.

  • Hip Hughes

    But wasn't the civil rights movement in part done in order to get laws which would nullify their need to protest? For instance the violence in Selma to get the ability to register to vote culminated in the Voting Rights Act. I am sure its nice to change a heart or mind but the physical ability to vote was secured with Federal Gov oversight. Mississippi was not ready to let blacks vote by itself. I agree its better to change a heart/mind and a law won't to that but to the victim, do they care?

  • Walter Clark

    In the long run they should care. The civil rights movement wanted change and laws were a means toward that end. If it turns out that hatred would continue forever, a law was the wrong means. Removing Jim Crow laws is the undoing of a government approval of segregation. That isn't what justifies hate on the part of bigots. It is the part of the 1965 Civil Rights Act which abrogates property rights in an attempt to force people to like each other, that gave justification for continuing prejudice.

  • Hip Hughes

    I am sure they should care but if I was being legally discriminated against, I would kinda care more about rectifying the governmental action which violated my natural rights. There is no justification for prejudice. Period. Without the 65 Voting Rights Act blacks would of been at the mercy of their racist governments for another generation. If people want to hate thats fine but they are not going to be able to turn that hate into discriminatory legalities. Not with a system which uphold rights

  • Hip Hughes

    I promise you its on my radar. I am working on summarizing it… I would rather not caught up in the Battle of Detroit or the shipping wars in Lake Erie. but its on my radar. perhaps next week. thanks for the suggestion though…

  • Walter Clark

    Note what you said. "If I was being discriminated against." Of course you would. And you would want any solution. If a meteor fell on my house (not covered by my home owners insurance, by the way) I'd want the government to solve that problem too. But is that a reason to pass a law? The 1964 Act few objected to. It is the property rights part of the 1965 Act that is so contentious. Thurmond may have been a racist, but what he said was spot on. "cannot force the Negro into our homes, into our…

  • fenix9885

    I love your videos and while I geek out and show my 3 year old and try to explain all of them to him, I know that after constant exposure to cool historical facts will have an affect. History = His Story

  • Walter Clark

    Accusing me of kidding you sounds like a desire to end an argument without admitting you learned anything from me. Which side of the cliff are you on if when you see a flaw you want to pass a law? Is there no negative unforeseen consequence because government intentions are good? You are dismissing the power of the civil rights movement in changing the hearts and mind if you as a historian consider that their goal was passing legislation and that it was men with guns that affected change.

  • Hip Hughes

    The government in my mind has two main jobs. Defense. Protecting the citizens who forms it liberty from itself. The tyranny of the majority. Substantive democracy is a checked mob rule. The evolution of our republic has included the concept of selective incorporation of certain protected liberties include the libertarians beloved property rights but more important the ability to have due process and blind treatment by the forces which become the voice of the people. So when the mob enacts(cont)

  • Hip Hughes

    (2/2) laws to discriminate, the protected liberties kick in. F' the people. so hearts and minds is beautiful. but thats not the gov. job, thats the peoples job. So the the civil rights movement has two goals… put into motion the text of the constitution (and yes the 14 in in there, it counts) and hopefully some people change. but again when the force of the masses through the gov is coming down on my head, I could give a rats behind about hears and minds. I want my life and liberty. cont

  • Hip Hughes

    3/3 I dont mean to be disrespectful, I just have little time to rehash an argument I have heard from libertarians my whole life. I am a statist in their book, so Ill wear that with a badge of honor…. the force of the state being used to prvent the tyranny of the masses. Like right now, I have 125 essays to grade so much love and peace. I have come to realize people who our out looking to convert dont listen, and I am not trying to convert. just live my path as you do your. happy trails.

  • Hip Hughes

    And seriously, no disrespect. I know you are coming from a place of ideological honesty and thanks for your patronage. Hashtag peace.

  • Hip Hughes

    @docgima check out eyes on the prize, episode two. Overheard by one the little rock nine as they were trapped in the school,

  • MegaAstrodude

    I'm 99% sure it's pronounced 'Wooster' or 'Wuhster' like other towns with that name and the town in England.

  • PartVIII

    were you referencing Fabius Maximus and the Fabian strategy? Faubus used a direct approach by sending national guard to prevent the little rock nine from entering, while Fabian strategy is indirect. im confused

  • sojournersblues

    I do agree with the idea that Faubus was playing to his base, which to me makes him a coward, but if you ask Arkansans, many will say he's a great pragmatist that successfully held the line against both sides of the issue.

  • Hip Hughes

    Ill make sure I tell the next gay American I meet in Oklahoma that can't get married, can get fired from their job and be denied housing based on their sexuality and tell them how much their civil rights are being guaranteed. Let me guess, and I could be wrong, you are straight, white and a man. Not that it matters but I am feeling psychic today. I am sure those kids felt real free too in the basement of their school as the state decided whether should let them be lynched or not.

  • Hip Hughes

    You have a right to be an ass and say stupid things. You don't have right not to be called a hater. Enjoy living in your cesspool of hate and anger at people not like you. Im done, you can rant now, Im going silent.

  • Hip Hughes

    The Presidents job is to uphold the Constitution, in this instance the lobby group the NAACP which represented the interests of those being effected by discrimination, called attention to their particular cause. Their constitutional rights were not being honored.So this is where the words of constitution meet the enforcement of its defender, the President.u sound like you are pretty smart, I vehemently disagree with your perspective but still the same you're entitled. Glad we agree about clowns.

  • rdskn4eva

    You do realize that the President's job is to enforce the law. If you break the law, the president can break your face. That's what Ike did.

  • rdskn4eva

    Apparently you dont know the roles of the Government. Your statement just prooved that. Great misdirection argument lol.

  • Michael MegagingerEnglish

    Also, USA need's to get rid of Obama because of the lil rock 9]
    Im a high school kid with a 3.00 CUMILATE GPA

    So here's to @Pot_Legalization

    Does ANY smart stoner got my back xD

  • Marcelo Ramos

    Very nice lecture, Keith, tks. You have a great hability in choosing a good cut of the facts in order to perform a perfectly understandable narrative (i'm refering to the contextualization).
    Just subscribed.
    Greetings from Brazil!

  • Larissa Brewington

    He totally told this story backward… The Eckford situation happened the same day as the Nat'l Guard showed up. And the Nat'l Guard didn't show up till AFTER Eisenhower met with Faubus… 

  • En Ukjent

    Hard work. I'm impressed at the momentum preserved at points where impartiality often seems but an unattainable dream.

  • Ashley Wilder

    My 5th grade students really enjoyed watching your videos on slavery, Nat Turner, etc. We quoted you all year, "That ain't fair!" It was an inside joke among all of us 🙂 I wish I could show more of your videos to them without the cussing 🙁

  • TenTonNuke

    0:53 Thanks, dick. Now my dog is going crazy. I had to let him outside to show him there was no one there. But great video. I know a lot about U.S. history, but somehow the Little Rock Nine had slipped through my knowledge cracks. Thanks to you, there's putty in those cracks. And dog pee on my carpet.

  • jen noury

    Democrats WERE the racist party? Hillary deeply respected frromer KKK member Robert Bird and Margeret Sanger who founded PP to lliminate blacks as well as other other social "Undesirables" and took her ugenisist ideas from Hitler. Blacks once voted for the party who freed them until the Democrats had an ingenious plan to re-enslave them by handing out welfare thus gaining favor and votes for the Dems. Anytime you allow the government to take care of you, you allow them to conrol you .

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