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Town Hall with Administrator Bridenstine on NASA Budget Amendment for Fiscal Year 2020


>>GOOD AFTERNOON, I’M WITH THE OFFICE OF COMMUNICATIONS HERE AT NASA. WELCOME TO THE SPECIAL TOWN HALL WITH ADMINISTRATOR JIM BRIDENSTINE. THIS IS AN EXHILARATING DAY FOR PEOPLE ACROSS NASA AND WE LOOK FORWARD TO GETTING THE FIRST WOMAN AND NEXT MAN TO THE MOON BY 2024. AS YOU’RE ABOUT TO HEAR FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR, WE HAVE THE PLANS, WE KNOW THE PLAN IS ACHIEVABLE AND THE PRESIDENTS AND THE VICE-PRESIDENT HAVE GIVEN US THE PUSH WE NEED TO GET STARTED. WE ENCOURAGE EVERYONE ACROSS THE AGENCY TO BE PART OF THIS IMPORTANT TOWN HALL AND YOU CAN DO SO EITHER BY YOUR MOBILE DEVICE OR YOUR DESKTOP COMPUTER. JUST TYPE NASA.GOV/TOWNHALL AT THE TOP OF YOUR BROWSER. ONCE YOU GET TO OUR SECURE TOWN HALL WEBSITE, YOU WILL BE ASKED TO ADD THE CENTER WHICH YOU ARE PARTICIPATING, THEN YOU WILL HAVE THE OPTION TO EITHER WRITE YOUR QUESTION OR YOU CAN VOTE ONE OF THE QUESTIONS ALREADY ON THE LIST. WE’LL ALSO BE TAKING QUESTIONS FROM THOSE OF WHO YOU HAVE JOINED US HERE INSIDE THE WEB AUDITORIUM AND HEADQUARTERS. WE LOOK FORWARD TO DISCUSSION WITH THE ADMINISTRATOR AND OUR SENIOR LEADERS. WE LOOK FORWARD TO YOUR PARTICIPATION. PLEASE JOIN ME AS WE WELCOME OUR ADMINISTRATOR JIM BRIDENSTINE. [ Applause ]>>THANK YOU, BETINA, FOR THE INTRODUCTION. IT IS A BIG DAY. TWO MONTHS FROM NOW, WE WILL BE 50 YEARS SINCE WE LANDED NEIL ARMSTRONG AND BUZZ ALDRIN ON THE MOON. 50 YEARS AGO WHEN THIS PROGRAM WENT FORWARD, ALL OF OUR ASTRONAUTS WERE BORNE FROM EITHER NAVAL AVIATION OR AIR FORCE AVIATION. WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT IT, THEY ALL CAME FROM FIGHTER PILOT BACKGROUNDS, TEST PILOT BACKGROUNDS AND THEN THEY BECAME ASTRONAUTS. AND IN THOSE DAYS, THERE WERE NO OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN TO HAVE THE PATH TO GO TO THE MOON. WHAT WE HAVE NOW IS A NEW OPPORTUNITY. IN TODAY’S ERA WE HAVE A VERY DIVERSE ASTRONAUT CORPS AND HIGHLY QUALIFIED ASTRONAUT CORPS. I CAN TELL YOU BASED ON MY CONVERSATIONS WITH MANY OF THEM THEY ARE ALL EXCITED ABOUT RETURNING TO THE MOON. A COUPLE OF WEEKS AGO WE HAD A TOWN HALL AND WE TALKED ABOUT WHAT A GREAT OPPORTUNITY IT IS FOR THE PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT TO SAY WE’RE GOING TO ACCELERATE THE PATH AND GET THERE BY 2024. THEY CAME TO US AND SAID WHAT IS IT YOU NEED TO ACCOMPLISH THAT GOAL, WHAT DO YOU NEED AS AN AGENCY? WELL, IT’S PRETTY SIMPLE. WE NEED AN SLS ROCKET, WITH THE ORION CREW CAMPUS AND THE EUROPEAN SERVICE MODULE. WE ALSO NEED A GATEWAY. AND FINALLY, WE NEED THE LANDING CAPABILITY TO GET US TO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. WE PUT IT ALL TOGETHER AND IT TURNS OUT THAT WE NEED ABOUT $1.6 BILLION. AND THE ADMINISTRATION SAID IF YOU GET THAT, IS THAT GOING TO GET YOU ENOUGH FOR THE YEAR 2020 TO GET HUMANS TO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON IN 2024, THE ANSWER IS YES, IT IS ABSOLUTELY ENOUGH FOR THE YEAR 2020. WE WILL NEED MORE ADDITIONAL RESOURCES IN FUTURE YEARS FOR SURE. BUT THEY GAVE US WHAT WE NEED IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE THE END STATE, THEY GAVE US WHAT WE NEED FOR THE YEAR 2020. I WANT TO ALSO TELL YOU BECAUSE A LOT OF US IN THIS ROOM DID A LOT OF WORK TO MAKE SURE THAT THE MONEY WASN’T CANNIBALIZING OTHER PARTS OF THE AGENCY. SO I THINK IN A VERY STRONG VOTE OF CONFIDENCE FOR THIS AGENCY, THE ADMINISTRATION DECIDED TO GIVE US $1.6 BILLION OF NEW SPENDING THAT IS NOT COMING FROM THE SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE, IT IS NOT COMING FROM THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, IT IS NOT COMING FROM ANY PART OF NASA. THAT IS I THINK A VERY STRONG INDICATOR THAT THIS ADMINISTRATION IS COMMITTED TO ACHIEVING THE END STATE IN A BI-PARTISAN WAY, WHICH IS SOMETHING THAT WE WORK VERY HARD TO ACHIEVE. I HAVE A DAUGHTER. SHE’S ELEVEN YEARS OLD. I WANT HER TO SEE HERSELF IN THE SAME POSITION THAT OUR CURRENT VERY DIVERSE ASTRONAUT CORPS CURRENTLY SEES ITSELF, HAVING THE OPPORTUNITY TO GO TO THE MOON. IN THE 1960s, YOUNG LADIES DIDN’T HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO SEE THEMSELVES IN THAT ROLE. TODAY THEY DO. AND I THINK THIS IS A VERY EXCITING OPPORTUNITY. I ALSO WANT TO BE CLEAR, WHY ARE WE ACCELERATING? WE HAD A PLAN FOR 2028. WHY ARE WE ACCELERATING TO 2024? THIS IS AN IMPORTANT MESSAGE FOR EVERYBODY AT NASA TO UNDERSTAND. THERE’S TWO RISKS THAT WE’RE DEALING WITH. ONE RISK IS SIMPLY TECHNICAL. AND GIVEN THE FOLKS IN THIS ROOM AND PEOPLE THROUGHOUT THE ENTIRE AGENCY THAT ARE WATCHING, I KNOW THAT THIS AGENCY CAN RETIRE THE TECHNICAL RISK. I HAVE NO DOUBT THAT WE CAN ACHIEVE THIS BY 2024 SO IF IT’S UP TO THE TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES OF THIS AGENCY. THERE’S ANOTHER RISK. THE OTHER RISK IS POLITICAL. IT’S WHY WE’RE NOT AT THE MOON RIGHT NOW AND IT’S IN FACT WHY WE’RE NOT AT MARS RIGHT NOW. OF COURSE, I’M NOT SUGGESTING WE’RE NOT AT MARS. WE ARE. GO INSIGHT. GO CURIOSITY! I THINK THE SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE FOLKS SAY LIKE WE’RE AT MARS, OKAY, GOT IT. [ Laughter ] JUST KNOW THIS. THE POLITICAL RISK HISTORICALLY, WHETHER IT WAS A SPACE EXPLORATION INITIATIVE OR THE VISION, IT’S ALWAYS BECAUSE BUDGETS CHANGE, ADMINISTRATIONS CHANGE, CONGRESSES CHANGE. HOW DO WE RETIRE AS MUCH POLITICAL RISK AS POSSIBLE? WE ACCELERATE THE PROGRAM. BASICALLY THE SHORTER THE PROGRAM IS, THE LESS TIME IT TAKES, THE LESS POLITICAL RISK WE ENDURE. IN OTHER WORDS, WE CAN ACCOMPLISH THE END STATE. THE OTHER THING THAT’S IMPORTANT TO NOTE. WHEN WE ACHIEVE THIS WITHIN FIVE YEARS AS THE VICE-PRESIDENT SAID, WHEN WE ACHIEVE THIS WITHIN FIVE YEARS, WE’RE GOING TO HAVE A PROGRAM, WE’RE GOING TO HAVE AN OPERATION WHERE WE’RE GOING TO BE SENDING HUMANS TO THE MOON EVERY YEAR IN A SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE THAT ALL OF AMERICA CAN BE VERY PROUD OF. AND I ALSO WANT TO SAY THIS. YOU IN THIS ROOM, WHEN WE ACHIEVE THAT AND OF COURSE THROUGHOUT THE ENTIRE AGENCY AT THE CENTERS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, WHEN WE ACHIEVE THAT END STATE, YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE SOMETHING MAGNIFICENT TO SHARE WITH YOUR CHILDREN AND YOUR GRANDCHILDREN. THIS IS A GREAT OPPORTUNITY FOR OUR LIFETIME. I DON’T THINK, I KNOW WE CAN ACHIEVE IT. THE FIRST STEP IS TO GET THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF MONEY FOR THE NEXT YEAR. AND WE HAVE THAT IN THE BUDGET REQUEST. WE’VE GOT TO MAKE SURE THAT WE’RE KEEPING THIS TOGETHER IN A BI-PARTISAN WAY AND GOING FORWARD TO THE HILL AND LETTING THEM KNOW WHY THIS IS SO IMPORTANT FOR OUR COUNTRY. I WANT TO SHARE WITH YOU A VIDEO THAT WE RECENTLY MADE, IT’S AN IMPORTANT VIDEO, THIS IS THE FIRST TIME THAT WE’VE RELEASED IT PUBLICLY BUT YOU GUYS HAVE SEEN THE WE ARE NASA VIDEO. I THINK EVERYBODY IN AMERICA HAS SEEN IT WHO HAS AN INTEREST IN THIS KIND OF ACTIVITY. THIS IS A VIDEO THAT PUTS A LITTLE MORE MEAT ON THE BONE, IT TALKS ABOUT HOW WE’RE GOING TO ACHIEVE THAT END STATE OF THE NEXT MAN AND THE FIRST WOMAN ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON IN 2024. WE ARE GOING. [ ♪♪♪ ]>>50 YEARS AGO WE PIONEERED A PATH TO THE MOON. THE TRAIL WE BLAZED CUT THROUGH THE FICTIONS OF SCIENCE AND SHOWED US ALL WHAT WAS POSSIBLE.>>IT’S VERY PRETTY OUT HERE.>>TODAY OUR CALLING TO EXPLORE IS EVEN GREATER. TO GO FARTHER, WE MUST BE ABLE TO SUSTAIN MISSIONS OF GREATER DISTANCE AND DURATION. WE MUST USE THE RESOURCES WE FIND AT OUR DESTINATIONS. WE MUST OVERCOME RADIATION, ISOLATION, GRAVITY, AND EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS LIKE NEVER BEFORE. THESE ARE THE CHALLENGES WE FACE TO PUSH THE BOUNDS OF HUMANITY. WE’RE GOING TO THE MOON TO STAY BY 2024, AND THIS IS HOW.>>THIS ALL STARTS WITH THE ABILITY TO GET LARGER, HEAVIER PAYLOADS OFF PLANET AND BEYOND EARTH’S GRAVITY.>>FOR THIS, WE DESIGNED AN ENTIRELY NEW ROCKET.>>SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM. SLS WILL BE THE MOST POWERFUL ROCKET EVER DEVELOPED.>>WITH COMPONENTS IN PRODUCTIONS AND MORE IN TESTING, THIS SYSTEM IS CAPABLE OF BEING THE CATALYST FOR DEEP SPACE MISSIONS.>>WE NEED A CAPSULE THAT CAN SUPPORT HUMANS FROM LAUNCH THROUGH DEEP SPACE AND RETURN SAFELY BACK TO EARTH.>>FOR THIS, WE’VE BUILT ORION.>>THIS IS NASA’S NEXT GENERATION HUMAN SPACE CAPSULE.>>USING DATA FROM LUNAR ORBITERS THAT CONTINUE TO REVEAL THE MOON’S HAZARDS AND RESOURCES, WE’RE CURRENTLY DEVELOPING AN ENTIRELY NEW APPROACH TO LANDING AND OPERATING ON THE MOON. USING OUR COMMERCIAL PARTNERS TO DELIVER SCIENCE INSTRUMENTS AND ROBOTICS TO THE SURFACE, WE’RE PAVING THE WAY FOR HUMAN MISSIONS IN 2024.>>OUR CHARGE IS TO GO QUICKLY AND STAY, TO PRESS OUR COLLECTIVE EFFORTS FORWARD WITH A FERVOR THAT WILL SEE US RETURN TO THE MOON IN A MANNER THAT IS WHOLLY DIFFERENT THAN 50 YEARS AGO.>>WE WANT LUNAR LANDERS THAT ARE REUSABLE THAT CAN LAND ANYWHERE ON THE LUNAR SURFACE.>>THE SIMPLEST WAY TO DO IS TO GIVE THEM A PLATFORM IN ORBIT AROUND THE MOON FROM WHICH TO TRANSITION.>>AN ORBITING PLATFORM TO HOST DEEP SPACE EXPERIMENTS AND BE A WAY-POINT FOR HUMAN CAPSULES. WE CALL THIS LUNAR OUTPOST GATEWAY.>>THE BEAUTY OF THE GATEWAY IS IT CAN BE MOVED BETWEEN ORBITS.>>IT WILL BALANCE BETWEEN THE EARTH AND MOON’S GRAVITY.>>IN A POSITION THAT IS IDEAL FOR LAUNCHING EVEN DEEPER SPACE MISSIONS.>>IN 2009, WE LEARNED THAT THE MOON CONTAINED MILLIONS OF TONS OF WATER ICE.>>THIS ICE CAN BE EXTRACTED AND PURIFIED FOR WATER AND SEPARATED IN OXYGEN FOR BREATHING OR HYDROGEN FOR ROCKET FUEL.>>THE MOON IS UNIQUELY SUITED TO PREPARE US AND PROPEL US TO MARS AND BEYOND.>>THIS IS WHAT WE’RE BUILDING.>>THIS IS WHAT WE’RE TRAINING FOR.>>THIS WE CAN REPLICATE THROUGHOUT THE SOLAR SYSTEM.>>THIS IS THE NEXT CHAPTER OF HUMAN SPACE EXPLORATION.>>HUMANS ARE THE MOST FRAGILE ELEMENT OF THIS ENTIRE ENDEAVOR AND YET WE GO FOR HUMANITY, WE GO TO THE MOON AND BEYOND TO MARS TO SEEK KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING AND TO SHARE IT WITH ALL. WE GO KNOWING OUR EFFORTS WILL CREATE OPPORTUNITIES THAT CANNOT BE FORESEEN. WE GO BECAUSE WE ARE DESTINED TO EXPLORE AND SEE IT WITH OUR OWN EYES. WE TURN TOWARDS THE MOON NOW NOT AS A CONCLUSION BUT AS PREPARATION. AS A CHECKPOINT TOWARDS ALL THAT LIES BEYOND. OUR GREATEST ADVENTURES REMAIN AHEAD OF US. WE ARE GOING.>>WE’RE GOING.>>WE’RE GOING.>>WE ARE GOING.>>WE’RE GOING. [ ♪♪♪ ] [ Applause ]>>SO WE ARE GOING. AND IN ORDER TO GO, IT REQUIRES AN ALL OF NASA APPROACH. HISTORICALLY THERE HAVE BEEN DIVISIONS. MAYBE IT’S GOING TO CANNIBALIZE THIS PART OF THE AGENCY IN ORDER TO GET MORE MONEY FOR THAT PART OF THE AGENCY. WELL, WHAT WE’RE DOING NOW IS ENTIRELY DIFFERENT. YOU HEARD ABOUT THE SUSTAINABLE RETURN TO THE MOON. AT THIS TIME WHEN WE GO, WE’RE GOING TO STAY. BUT WE’RE ALSO NOT JUST GOING TO GO AS A HUMAN EXPLORATION AND OPERATIONS MISSION DIRECTORATE. IN THIS BUDGET WE’RE TALKING ABOUT THE 1.6 BILLION OF NEW DOLLARS, THERE IS ALSO MONEY IN THERE FOR THE SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE TO DO SCIENCE ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. THERE’S ALSO MONEY IN THERE FOR THE SPACE TECHNOLOGY MISSION DIRECTORATE. SO I HAVE ALL OF THE MISSION DIRECTORATE HEADS HERE, THE ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATORS TO NO KIDDING, SHARE WITH YOU WHAT EACH ONE OF THE MISSION DIRECTORATES IS GOING TO BE DOING IN ORDER TO ACCOMPLISH THIS END STATE OF THE NEXT MAN AND THE FIRST WOMAN ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON WITHIN FIVE YEARS. SO WITH THAT, I’M GOING TO TURN IT OVER THE ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR OF HUMAN EXPLORATION AND OPERATIONS, BILL GUEST MEYER.>>THANKS. I THINK YOU SAW IN THE VIDEO EXACTLY WHAT WE’RE DOING AND YOU GOT TO SEE FACES AND HARDWARE AND PEOPLE WORKING ON THIS. TO MAKE THIS HAPPEN, WE’RE GOING TO NEED THE ENTIRE WORK FORCE LIKE JIM SAID AND ALL OF US PULLING TOGETHER AND FIGURE OUT WAYS TO MOVE AND WORK MORE EFFICIENTLY THAN WE EVER HAVE BEFORE. WE NEED TO MOVE WITH FAST DECISIONS AND MAKE DECISIONS AND RECOGNIZE IT MAY NOT BE A PERFECT DECISION BUT WE NEED TO MAKE THAT DECISION, GET BEHIND THAT DECISION AND MOVE FORWARD AND CONTINUE TO MOVE FORWARD. I THINK THIS TOWN HALL TODAY IS REALLY ABOUT THAT. THIS IS OUR CHANCE TO TALK TO YOU, THE WORK FORCE, ABOUT WHAT WE’RE DOING AND HOW WE’RE GOING TO PUT THIS TOGETHER AND HOW WE’RE GOING TO USE THIS $1.6 BILLION TO ADVANCE WHAT WE’RE ALREADY DOING. I THINK IT’S A TREMENDOUS TESTIMONY TO WHAT WE’VE PUT IN PLACE THAT WE DON’T HAVE TO REINVENT EVERYTHING. WE DON’T HAVE TO START ALL OVER AGAIN. WE’RE ABLE TO TAKE THE GATEWAY, SHRINK IT A LITTLE BIT, WE CAN USE IT AS THIS ORBITING OUTPOST THAT ALLOWS US TO GO ANYWHERE ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON AND ALLOWS US TO HAVE A REUSABLE ARCHITECTURE THAT CAN GROW EASILY TO ADD INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS AND BUILD THIS BASE TO GO BEYOND THE EARTH’S MOON SYSTEM WITH HUMANS SO IT ALL FITS, SLS AND ORION ARE MOVING FORWARD. THE ACTIVITIES WE’VE BEEN DOING WITH SCIENCE, THE THINGS WE’VE BEEN DOING WITH THE SPACE TECHNOLOGY MISSION DIRECTORATE, ALL THOSE FIT TOGETHER. HOPEFULLY TODAY WHEN YOU ASK YOUR QUESTIONS, WE’LL GIVE YOU SOME ANSWERS, SOME INFORMATION HOW WE CAN MOVE FORWARD BUT WE LOOK TO YOU TO HELP US FIGURE OUT HOW WE GET BEHIND THIS HUGE CHALLENGE WE HAVE IN FRONT OF US AND HOW WE TAKE THIS DREAM, HOW WE TAKE THIS COMMITMENT THAT THE ADMINISTRATION HAS GIVEN US FOR THIS 1.6 BILLION IN 2020 ABOVE WHERE WE ARE, HOW YOU CAN HELP US WORK WITH CONGRESS TO GET THAT APPROVED SO IN OCTOBER 1st WE CAN START LAYING IN PLACE THE CONTRACTS THAT ACTUALLY START BUILDING HARDWARE THAT GIVE US A LANDER THAT TAKES FROM THE GATEWAY DOWN TO THE FAS AND BACK. IT’S AN EXCITING TIME. I LOOK FORWARD TO ANSWERING QUESTIONS AND TALKING TO YOU AND MOVING FORWARD.>>YOU GAVE US JUST A LITTLE PREVIEW THERE, SO $1.6 BILLION, A BILLION OF THAT IS GOING TO BE FOCUSED ON THE LUNAR LANDING ACTIVITY. WOULD YOU TALK FOR A SECOND ABOUT WHAT THAT LOOKS LIKE, WHAT IT MAY OR MAY NOT LOOK LIKE, BASED ON WHAT INDUSTRY PROVIDES US, AND ULTIMATELY HOW THE PROCUREMENT OF THAT IS INTENDED TO GO.>>SURE. WE WOULD START OUT WITH A REUSABLE SYSTEM AT GATEWAY. A TRANSFER VEHICLE WOULD TAKE THE ASCENT VEHICLE AND DESCENT VEHICLE DOWN TO A LOW LUNAR ORBIT AND THE DESCENT VEHICLE MODULE TAKES US DOWN TO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON, WE CAN DO ACTIVITIES FOR A COUPLE DAYS ON THE SURFACE, TAKE ASCENT VEHICLE DIRECTLY BACK TO GATEWAY. THAT WAS KIND OF THE CONCEPT. WE GOT THINKING ABOUT IT AND SAID MAYBE THAT’S NOT EXACTLY THE RIGHT STAGING. MAYBE IT DOESN’T NEED TO BE THREE PIECES. MAYBE IT SHOULD BE TWO PIECE. MAYBE THERE’S 2 1/2, MAYBE THERE’S A DIFFERENT ARCHITECTURE. SO WE ACTUALLY PUT OUT A SYNOPSIS, WE HAVE SOME STUDIES WE’RE READY TO WARD HERE IN A COUPLE OF WEEKS, TO ASK HOW ARE WE GOING TO PUT THIS TOGETHER, WHAT IS THE RIGHT ARCHITECTURE. GATEWAY YOU GET A REUSABLE, SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE WHICH IS A VERY DIFFERENT WAY OF DOING THE MOON THAN WE’VE EVER DONE BEFORE.>>WE WOULD BE BUYING A SERVICE TO TAKE IT DOWN AND BACK TO GATEWAY. WE’RE BUYING A SERVICE AND WE’RE LOOKING TO THE SERVICE PROVIDERS TO CREATE THE ABSOLUTE BEST IDEAS THEY HAVE BECAUSE THEY MIGHT WANT TO PROVIDE SERVICES THAT MAY OR MAY NOT DEAL WITH NASA IN THE FUTURE FOR A COMMERCIAL LUNAR LANDING CAPABILITY.>>INITIALLY WE THOUGHT WE WOULD KEEP THEM AS THREE PIECES AND NASA WOULD INTEGRATE. NO, FOR SPEED IT’S BETTER WE LET THE COMMERCIAL SECTOR DO THAT, FIGURE OUT HOW THAT OCCURS AND WE PARTICIPATE WITH THIS. WE WILL DESCRIBE LATER WHAT THE ROLES ARE FOR THE NASA WORK FORCE AND IN THE STUDY PHASE WE’RE GOING TO BUILD PROTOTYPE HARDWARE. WE’RE GOING TO BUILD SOME PUMPS AND OTHER PIECES, EMBED NASA ENGINEERS WITH THE COMPANIES ACTUALLY BUILDING THE PROTOTYPES SO THEN OUR NASA WORK FORCE GETS A CHANCE TO SEE FIRSTHAND ON DEVELOPMENT, SEE NEW HARDWARE BEING BUILT AND THEN THE NASA EMPLOYEES THAT ARE THERE CAN REACH BACK INTO THE AGENCY AND PULL IN COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, THEY CAN PULL IN MORE RESOURCES TO HELP THE MOVE FORWARD SO WE’RE WORKING A WAY TO TAKE PARTNERING UP TO THE NEXT LEVEL, WHERE WE EMBED NASA FOLKS WITH THOSE BUILDING HARDWARE. WE’RE BUILDING OFF WHAT WE’VE DONE WITH COMMERCIAL CARGO, WHAT WE’VE DONE WITH COMMERCIAL CREW, WHAT THOMAS IS GOING TO BE DOING WITH THE COMMERCIAL LANDING SERVICES PROGRAM. WE TAKE ALL THOSE THINGS, LEARN FROM THOSE AND WE EMBED THEM IN THE NEXT THING WE DO MOVING FORWARD. SO WE’RE NOT JUST TRYING SOMETHING TOTALLY NEW, WE’RE BUILDING OFF WHAT WE’VE DONE BEFORE.>>WE’VE DONE AMAZING THINGS, COMMERCIAL RESUPPLY. NOW WE’RE ON THE BRINK OF COMMERCIAL CREW. WE’VE LEARNED LESSONS IN THE APPLY. WE’RE GOING TO APPLY THEM IN THE FUTURE. I APPRECIATE YOUR GREAT LEADERSHIP ON ALL THESE ACTIVITIES. THE NEXT THING, WE’LL TALK TO JIM RYDER HERE WITH THE SPACE TECHNOLOGY MISSION DIRECTORATE, THE ASSOCIATE STARTER OF THE SPACE TECHNOLOGY MISSION DIRECTORATE ABOUT WHAT IS SPACE TECHNOLOGY. WHAT ARE WE GOING TO USE THE SPACE TECHNOLOGY MISSION DIRECTORATE FOR TO ACHIEVE THIS END STATE OF HUMANS LIVING AND WORKING ON THE MOON.>>THANK YOU, JIM. I THINK WHAT WE’VE SEEN THROUGHOUT HISTORY IS TECHNOLOGY WHAT ALWAYS DRIVES THE EXPLORATION. WE IN THE SPACE TECHNOLOGY MISSION DIRECTORATE ARE EXCITED TO BE A STRONG PART OF THIS ACTIVITY AND ALSO WITH $130 MILLION INCREASE IN THE BUDGET TO WORK ON ADDITIONAL AND ENHANCE OUR ACTIVITIES FOR PRECURSORS, FOR SUPPORT FOR THE 2024 LANDING AND FOR SURFACE OPERATIONS. SO THERE ARE SEVERAL TECHNOLOGIES WE’VE ALREADY BEEN WORKING ON, SUCH AS PRECISION LANDING, SO ELECTRIC COMPULSION, CRYOGENIC FLUID MANAGEMENT, THAT ARE STILL INTEGRAL TO THE WHOLE ACTIVITY. WHAT WE’RE DOING NOW IS ENSURING THAT OUR SCHEDULES ALIGN WITH THE PUSH TOWARDS 2024. BEYOND THAT, THEN WE’RE LOOKING VERY STRONGLY AT THE SURFACE ITSELF. FOR ACTIVITIES THAT WE’LL DO THAT. ONE ACTIVITY WE SHARE STRONG COMMON INTEREST WITH SCIENCE IS IN LOOKING AND CAPTURING LUNAR ICE AND CONVERTING TO WATER AND THEN USING THAT, PROCESSING THAT AND USING IT FOR PROPELLANT. THAT’S AN ACTIVITY WE’LL HAVE A STRONG PUSH FOR. IN ADDITION TO THAT, LOOKING AT WAYS OF RECOVERING OXYGEN FROM THE SOIL. THAT’S A VERY PROMISING TECHNOLOGY AS WELL. SO THEN BEYOND THAT, WHEN WE ENVISION A SCENE WHERE THERE COULD BE A LOT OF MINI ROBOTS OR ROVERS TRAVERSING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON, AND EXTENDING OUR REACH AND OUR KNOWLEDGE BASE. ALL OF THAT REQUIRES A POWER ARCHITECTURE WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT IT ON THE MOON, A POWER AND THERMAL MANAGEMENT ARCHITECTURE AND THERE WILL BE SOME TECHNOLOGIES THERE WE’LL BE LOOKING AT LIKE REGENERATIVE FUEL CELLS AND ULTIMATELY TOWARDS FISSION AND NUCLEAR POWER. AND BEYOND THAT, GOING OFF TO THE SURFACE, WE ENVISION THAT THERE ARE SEVERAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR USING SMALL SPACECRAFT, CUBE-SET SIZED ACTIVITIES TO DO THINGS LIKE LUNAR COM RELAYS ON THE SURFACE, UNDERSTANDING AUTONOMOUS AND NAVIGATION ACTIVITIES AND ALSO HOPEFULLY CHARACTERIZE AND SURFACE EVEN BETTER FROM SPACE. WITH THAT, THE BEST THING WE THINK ABOUT THIS, THE MOON IS ABSOLUTELY A PERFECT PLACE FOR A TEST BED AND IT’S A GREAT PROVING GROUND FOR US TO EXTEND TO MARS.>>THANK YOU, JIM. SPACE TECHNOLOGY WILL BE A BIG PIECE OF IT. LEARNED HOW TO GET OXYGEN FROM THE REGOLITH. WE’RE GOING TO GET OXYGEN, WATER. WE ALSO COULD BE POTENTIALLY ULTIMATELY CREATING FUEL OUT OF THE WATER ICE AS WELL. WE NEED FISSION POWER IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE THESE GOALS THAT OF COURSE I KNOW YOU’RE WORKING ON. SO THERE’S NO SHORTAGE OF OPPORTUNITY HERE AND WE’RE THRILLED THAT SPACE TECHNOLOGY GOT A PLUS AS WELL.>>I’LL ALSO REITERATE WHAT ABOUT WHAT YOU ALSO SAID, THIS IS A STRONG PARTNERSHIP WITH OUR NASA WORK FORCE, WITH INDUSTRY AND WITH ACADEMIA AND WHAT WE FIND IS WHEN WE HAVE THOSE PARTNERSHIPS TOGETHER, WE REALLY STRENGTHEN THE ACTIVITIES THAT WE DO AND WE ENJOY VERY STRONG SUPPORT FROM EACH OF OUR CENTERS AND WE EXPECT TO CONTINUE TO DO SO.>>THAT’S WONDERFUL. WHEN HE TALKS ABOUT ACADEMIA, WE’RE TALKING ABOUT NO KIDDING, VERY LOW CRL KIND OF CAPABILITIES, TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVELS, AND THAT’S WHERE UNIVERSITIES PLAY A VERY STRONG ROLE.>>ABSOLUTELY.>>AND WE LEVERAGE THEM HIGHLY, WHICH MEANS WE NEED TO ENGAGE OUR UNIVERSITIES THROUGH THE CENTERS ALL ACROSS THE UNITED STATES. SO THANK YOU FOR YOUR LEADERSHIP ON ALL THAT ACTIVITY.>>THANK YOU, JIM.>>ANOTHER BENEFIT TO THE NEW BUDGET IS THAT THE SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE ALSO HAS ADDITIONAL FUNDING. SINCE I’VE BEEN THE NASA STARTER, IT’S BEEN WELL OVER A YEAR, IT’S HARD TO BELIEVE, IT SEEMS LIKE I STARTED YESTERDAY. SINCE I’VE BEEN HERE, I HEARD OVER AND OVER AGAIN ABOUT ALL THE SCIENCE WE OUGHT TO BE GETTING FROM THE MOON MAYBE WE’VE BEEN MISSING OUT ON. I’VE HEARD IT FROM ACTIVISTS ACROSS THE COUNTRY, FROM INSIDE THE AGENCY. I KNOW KNOW Dr. THOMAS ZABUKIN, OUR ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR HAS A KEEN HEART FOR THE ACTIVITIES THAT HAPPEN ON THE MOON FROM A SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE. IF YOU WOULD SHARE WITH US ABOUT HOW YOU INTEND TO USE THE RESOURCES WE’RE GETTING FROM THE NEW BUDGET REQUEST IN ORDER TO USE SCIENCE ON OUR MOON OBJECTIVES.>>I REALLY WANT TO ANSWER THAT. BEFORE I DO SO, I WANT TO QUICKLY POINT OUT WHAT HAPPENED LAST WEEK. WHAT HAPPENED LAST WEEK OF COURSE, OCO3 INSTRUMENT THAT ARRIVED AT THE SPACE STATION AS PART OF A RESUPPLY MISSION, COMMERCIAL RESUPPLY MISSION, WITH WAS INSTALLED AND WAS POWERED DOWN IN RECORD TIME. THAT IS ONE OF THOSE EXAMPLES THAT WE WANT TO MODEL FOR. WHAT WE WANT TO DO OF COURSE LIKE WE ALWAYS DO IN SCIENCE IS WE WANT TO GO BEYOND THE REALM OF BE WE ARE TODAY, BOTH WHERE OUR EXPERIENCES ARE BUT ALSO WHERE OUR THINKING IS AND WE WANT TO GO BREAK THROUGH THOSE BOUNDARIES IN PARTNERSHIPS WITH THESE MISSION DIRECTORATES.>>OCO3, ORBITAL CARBON OBSERVATORY, AND WE ARE COLLECTING MORE INFORMATION THAN EVER BEFORE IN THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD ON THE CARBON IN OUR ATMOSPHERE. I JUST WANTED TO MAKE SURE WE WERE CLEAR.>>ABSOLUTELY. SO AS WE GO FORWARD HERE TO THE MOON IN ’24 WITH HUMANS AT THE SURFACE, WHAT WE WANT TO KNOW IS REALLY ABOUT THOSE POLAR REGIONS WHERE WE WANT TO LAND. THE $90 MILLION OVER AND ABOVE THE COMMERCIAL PROGRAM ALREADY DISCUSSED EARLIER, $90 MILLION FOR THAT IS THERE TO ANALYZE THOSE RESOURCES IN THE POLAR REGIONS. YES, WE SEE THEM REMOTELY, WE LOOK AT THEM WITH OUR LRO SPACECRAFT. WE HAVE IMAGES. WE WANT TO GO THERE AND ANALYZE THEM AND EVENTUALLY FRANKLY LIKE TO BRING THEM BACK TO EARTH BUT ALSO LEARN EXACTLY IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THESE OTHER DIRECTORATES HOW TO TAKE THOSE RESOURCES OUT, USE THEM FOR OUR HUMAN EXPLORATION AND PERHAPS FOR MAKING FUEL, WE WANT TO GO DEEP NEAR THE SOLAR SYSTEM. THAT’S ONLY ONE ELEMENT BECAUSE THERE’S OTHER OBJECTIVES WE’RE TRYING TO ADDRESS. WE ALREADY TALKED ABOUT THE FACT EARLIER, JIM GREEN DOES AMAZING TALKS ABOUT THIS, THERE’S MANY QUESTIONS WE CAN ANSWER AT THE MOON THAT FRANKLY THERE’S NO BETTER PLACE TO ANSWER SUCH AS WHAT IS THE AGE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND ITS BOMBARDMENT HISTORY. THE MOON HAS A HISTORY BOOK OF THAT THE WAY THE EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS ARE NOT. WE WANT TO GO TO THE MOON AND ANSWER THOSE. THE OTHER PART IS OF COURSE THE MICROPROCESSES THAT INTERSECT, INTERACT WITH THE MOON, ACT ALL OVER THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND OTHER PLANETARY SYSTEMS. WE WANT TO LEARN AND UNDERSTAND AND TAKE THAT KNOWLEDGE AND TRANSFER THEM OVER TO PLANETARY SCIENCES, ASTROPHYSICS, HELIOPHYSICS AND EARTH SCIENCE AND LEARN ABOUT THAT. AS ALREADY MENTIONED THE THIRD OBJECTIVE IS REALLY ABOUT KIND OF TAKING THAT KNOWLEDGE AND TURN IT INTO HOW DO WE DEAL WITH THOSE RESOURCES. ALL THOSE WILL BE ADDRESSED BY THE INSTRUMENTS WE’RE GOING TO DRIVE WITH OUR COMMERCIAL PARTNERS TO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. WE’RE THE FASTEST ELEMENT IN THAT CAMPAIGN. WE’RE DEEPLY AWARE OF THAT AND WE’RE WATCHING EVERY DAY. I JUST WANT TO THANK ALL THESE VALUABLE CIVIL SERVANTS AND CONTRACTORS THAT BEING PART OF THAT TOGETHER WITH OUR COMMERCIAL PARTNERS TO ACTUALLY KEEP US ON SPEED AND KEEP US TARGETED TOWARDS THE OBJECTIVES AT HAND.>>THAT’S WONDERFUL, THOMAS. I DO THINK A LOT OF PEOPLE MISS THE FACT THAT PEOPLE THINK WELL, THE EARTH AND THE MOON, WE FLY THROUGH THE SAME PIECE OF SPACE AT THE SAME TIME. THEREFORE, WHATEVER IMPACTS THE MOON HAS IMPACTED THE EARTH AND THEREFORE WE CAN GET JUST AS MUCH SCIENCE FROM THE EARTH. BUT THE EARTH HAS THIS VERY ACTIVE HYDROSPHERE AND IT HAS A VERY ACTIVE GEOLOGY AND A VERY ACTIVE ATMOSPHERE. AND SO WE HAVE NOT PRESERVED THE HISTORY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM THE WAY THE MOON HAS PRESERVED THE HISTORY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM SO WE’RE ALL VERY EXCITED ABOUT GETTING TO THE MOON AND LEARNING WHAT THAT HISTORY REALLY IS AND ALSO USING THE MOON IN ESSENCE TO DO DEEP SPACE SCIENCE, ASTROPHYSICS, MEAN EVEN FROM THE FAR SIDE OF THE MOON WHERE IT’S VERY QUIET FROM AN ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM PERSPECTIVE. USE THE MOON TO GATHER INFORMATION ABOUT DEEP SPACE, NOT JUST OUR SOLAR SYSTEM BUT OTHER GALAXIES AND FACT THE UNIVERSE AT LARGE SO THERE’S JUST A LOT OF OPPORTUNITIES.>>I REALLY APPRECIATE THAT YOU SAID THAT. YOU KNOW, I MEAN, THERE ARE SCIENCE QUESTIONS THAT ARE IN THE MINDS OF OUR COMMUNITY THAT FRANKLY THE BEST PLACE TO ANSWER THEM ARE AWAY FROM EARTH. IN FACT, WE’VE ALREADY IN SOME OF OUR CALLS FOR PROPOSAL BUT THE GATEWAY AS A PLATFORM FOR SOME OF THESE EXPERIMENTS. WE DON’T KNOW WHAT THEY ARE. THE OCO3 INSTRUMENT WE JUST TALKED ABOUT ON THE SPACE STATION WAS INVENTED BY A REALLY CREATIVE PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR. WE WANT TO PUT THE BALL IN THE HANDS OF THE MOST CRITICAL, MOST INNOVATIVE AND REALLY EXCITED PEOPLE THAT CAN CRITICALLY LOOK AT ALL THESE IDEAS AND TAKE THE BEST ONE AND GIVE THEM TO US AND THEN WE CAN FUND THEM, WHETHER IT’S AT THE GATEWAY OR THE SURFACE OF THE MOON, WE WANT TO DO JUST THAT.>>THAT’S AWESOME. OKAY. SO WHAT I WOULD LIKE TO DO NOW IS JUST OPEN IT UP FOR THE QUESTION-AND-ANSWER SESSION AND OF COURSE WE’RE ALL HERE TO ANSWER QUESTIONS. SO BETINA, I GUESS YOU’VE GOT INCOMING.>>YES, THANK YOU FOR A GREAT CONVERSATION. WE’RE GOING TO TAKE A QUESTION FROM THE WEBSITE THAT PEOPLE SUBMITTED AND THEN WE’LL TAKE A QUESTION FROM THE AUDIENCE. SO START THINKING AND WE’LL CALL ON YOU QUICKLY. THE FIRST QUESTION IS, WILL THE MOON OBJECTIVES TAKE PRECEDENT OVER RESEARCH IN AREAS LIKE EARTH SCIENCE AND UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS IN THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE?>>ABSOLUTELY NOT. IN FACT, WE WORKED VERY HARD AS A TEAM AS AN AGENCY TO MAKE SURE THAT THE BUDGET AMENDMENTS WOULD PRESERVE ALL OF THE IMPORTANT PARTS OF NASA’S BUDGET. AND WE ACHIEVED THAT GOAL. SO THE $1.6 BILLION IS NEW MONEY FOCUSED ON THE LUNAR OBJECTIVE AND NONE OF IT IS COMING FROM OTHER PARTS OF THE AGENCY. SO WE’RE ALL VERY, VERY PROUD OF THAT. THOMAS, DID YOU WANT TO ADDRESS IT?>>ID JUST WANTED TO SAY, I THINK THE ONE THING I WANTED TO SAY FROM MY WORK THAT HAPPENS DURING TIMES WHERE CAMERAS ARE NOT ON THAT, MESSAGE FROM JIM, THAT MESSAGE FROM BILL, FROM THEM HERE IS CONSISTENT EACH AND EVERY HOUR. WE HAVE THAT DISCUSSION. SO IT’S NOT THE CASE THAT SOMEHOW THERE’S A BIG QUESTION ABOUT THIS AND THEN BY 1% WE GO THIS WAY. THAT MESSAGE THAT YOU JUST TALKED ABOUT IS CONSISTENT IN EACH AND EVERY ONE OF OUR MEETINGS. SO I JUST WANT TO SAY THAT TO THE SCIENCE COMMUNITY OUT THERE LISTENING IN, I MEAN, YOU HAVE KIND OF A FRIEND ON YOUR SIDE HERE IN THE ADMINISTRATOR AND HIS TEAM I’M SURE THE COMMUNITY WOULD SAY THE EXACT SAME THING.>>I THINK THE MISSION GOING TO THE MOON UNIFIES US ACROSS ALL MISSION DIRECTORATES IN A WAY THAT IS VERY POSITIVE.>>GREAT. WE’RE GOING TO TAKE A QUESTION FROM THE AUDIENCE.>>THIS GUY.>>YOU’VE GOT TO ANSWER IT.>>THIS IS GOING TO BE A TOUGH ONE! [ Laughter ]>>YOU KNOW, THE WAY TO ACHIEVE OUR OBJECTIVES AS WE’VE SEEN IN THE PAST IS TO FOCUS. I CALL THAT BURNING A HOLE IN STEEL. AND AS MANAGERS AND THE ACTIVITIES THAT WE DO, WHAT ARE THE THINGS THAT YOU THINK WE SHOULD BE DOING TO CREATE THAT FOCUS SUCH THAT WE CAN MEET THAT OBJECTIVE?>>SO I THINK THERE’S A COUPLE OF THINGS. YOU KNOW, A COUPLE OF THINGS THAT THE VICE-PRESIDENT ACTUALLY SAID SIX WEEKS AGO WHEN HE ANNOUNCED WE WERE GOING TO ACCELERATE THE MOON PROGRAM. ONE OF THE THINGS HE SAID THAT WAS IMPORTANT IS WE CANNOT HAVE PARALYSIS BY ANALYSIS. FOR EVERY PERSON IN THIS ROOM THERE’S A DIFFERENT IDEA ON HOW TO ACCOMPLISH THE OBJECTIVE. WHY? BECAUSE THIS IS AN AGENCY THAT HAS SMARTEST PEOPLE IN THE COUNTRY AND EVERYBODY HERE HAS THE STRONG OPINION AND I’LL TELL YOU, I LOVE THAT ABOUT THIS SPACE AGENCY. KEEP THOSE STRONG OPINIONS BUT NO, THERE’S GOING TO COME A DAY AND IN FACT THAT DAY IS VERY NEAR WHEN WE HAVE TO STOP THE DEBATE AND ACTUALLY MOVE FORWARD ON THE PROGRAM AND THAT DAY IS VERY CLOSE. I WOULD ALSO SAY BEYOND THE PARALYSIS BY ANALYSIS SOMETHING ELSE THE VICE-PRESIDENT SAID IS THAT ANYTHING THAT IS NOT NECESSARY IS A DISTRACTION. AND SO THAT APPLIES ACROSS ALL MISSION DIRECTORATES ACROSS ALL MISSIONS THAT IF YOU’RE BOGGED DOWN IN BUREAUCRACY, HELP US UNDERSTAND HOW TO HELP YOU GET THE BUREAUCRACY OUT OF THE WAY SO WE’RE NOT WASTING TIME AND IN FACT, WE ARE DOING WHAT IS NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE THE END STATE. AND THAT’S TRUE WHETHER YOU’RE WORKING ON EARTH SCIENCE MISSIONS OR WORKING ON ASTROPHYSICS OR WHATEVER THE CASE IS. SO ANYTHING THAT IS NOT NECESSARY IS A DISTRACTION AND I LIKE TO REINFORCE THAT.>>DO YOU MIND IF I ADD, JUST TO GIVE YOU AN EXAMPLE. I’M A STRONG BELIEVER IN GETTING THE RIGHT PEOPLE ON THE TASK AND USING THE RIGHT PROCESSES WHICH IS WHAT YOU JUST TALKED ABOUT. I JUST WANT TO GIVE YOU AN EXAMPLE. I JUST MET WITH THE PEOPLE UPSTAIRS, THEY’RE WORKING THROUGH A MAJOR MILESTONE, WE’RE GETTING READY TO TALK ABOUT THAT IN TWO, THREE WEEKS, IT’S REALLY EXCITING WHAT’S HAPPENING. HOW DID THEY GET THERE? FIRST OF ALL, PEOPLE FOCUSED ENTIRELY ON THAT. THEY TOOK THE MOST AGGRESSIVE SCHEDULE. SO FAR EVERY SINGLE MILESTONE THEY PUT UP THEY BEAT. EVERY SINGLE MILESTONE. THAT ONLY WORKS IF PEOPLE ARE BASICALLY PRIORITIZING THIS OVER OTHER THINGS. NOT EVERY TASK IS EQUALLY IMPORTANT. THIS ONE, BECAUSE OF THE FACT THAT WHERE OUR TRUST IS, IT HAS TO HAVE PRIORITIES OVER OTHERS. THE PRIORITIES NEED TO BE FOCUSED TOWARDS THAT. THAT’S REALLY THE EXAMPLE WE WANT TO USE IN SCIENCE. I KNOW FROM TALKING TO MY COLLEAGUES, THAT’S WHAT THEY’RE DOING TO REALLY MAKE SURE WE DO THE RIGHT THINGS, AND WE DO THE RIGHT THINGS AT THE BEST POSSIBLE SPEED, KIND OF HANDLING ALL THESE REALLY PRIORITIZING THEM OVER THE THINGS THAT COULD DISTRACT US.>>IF IT’S OKAY, YOU LIKE TO USE ACRONYMS. I KNOW THERE’S A LOT OF PEOPLE ACROSS THE AGENCY, MAYBE NOT EVERYONE KNOWS CLIFF. COMMERCIAL LUNAR PAYLOAD SERVICES, IT IS THE SCIENCE DIRECTORATE TO GET PAYLOAD TO THE MOON AS EXPEDITIOUSLY AS POSSIBLE. WE BUY THAT THAT A SERVICE. NASA ISN’T PURCHASING, OWNING AND OPERATING THE HARDWARE THAT GETS US THERE. WE JUST CREATE THE SCIENCE THAT WE WANT AND WE SAY WHO CAN DELIVER THIS TO THE MOON AND AT WHAT COST AND THAT’S THE PROGRAM THAT THOMAS HAS CORRECTLY IDENTIFIED, A PROGRAM THAT HAS GONE VERY, VERY FAST BECAUSE OF THE FOCUSING.>>WHAT’S EXCITING ABOUT THAT, WE CAN WATCH AND SEE HOW THAT PROGRAM GOES AND USE IT AS A GAUGE TO SEE HOW READY INDUSTRY REALLY IS TO STEP UP TO MORE COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES FOR HUMAN CLASS LANDERS IN THE FUTURE SO WE DON’T JUST SIT IDLY BACK AND WATCH WHAT THE SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE IS DOING. WE’RE ACTIVELY INVOLVED WITH THEM LEARNING EVERYTHING WE CAN SO WHEN WE GET TO THE MORE DEMANDING STEP, HEY, WE LEARNED FROM THAT ACTIVITY, NOT JUST THE TECHNOLOGY, JUST NOT THE TECHNIQUES, JUST NOT THE SCIENCE PIECE BUT ALSO THE ACQUISITION PIECE AND HOW WE STRUCTURE OURSELVES AND HOW WE TEAM AND HOW WE WORK TOGETHER SO WE CAN CONTINUE TO KEEP LEARNING OFF OF EACH OTHER AND IN ADVANCE AND KEEP THIS FOCUS OR KEEP THIS DRIVE TOWARDS THIS GOAL OF 2024.>>THE THING I’LL ADD TOO IS THAT ONE MORE METHOD OF ENSURING FOCUS IS CONTINUE ON OPEN COMMUNICATION. WHEN IN CONTEXT FOR WHAT’S GOING ON, AND WITH THAT, WE GIVE THE RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY TO OUR FOLKS AND WE SUPPORT THEM AS THEY NEED BUT WE GET OUT OF THEIR WAY WHEN THEY DON’T NEED IT. SO THAT’S ANOTHER KEY PART OF IT THAT CAN REALLY DRIVE IT.>>AWESOME. GREAT. WE’RE GOING TO GO FROM ANOTHER QUESTION FROM ONLINE. IS THE $1.6 BILLION INCREASE IN FUNDING REQUESTS ACTUALLY ENOUGH TO ACCELERATE GOING TO THE MOON IN THE NEXT FIVE YEARS?>>THAT’S A GREAT QUESTION. IT IS ENOUGH FOR THE YEAR 2020. IT ENABLES TO US GET OUT OF THE GATE WITH A GOOD START AND TO DO IT IN A WAY WHERE WE’RE NOT CREATING DIVISIONS INSIDE THE AGENCY, WHERE WE ACTUALLY GET ON THE UNIFIED AS AN AGENCY MOVING FORWARD. THAT’S WHAT IS SO VALUABLE ABOUT THE $1.6 BILLION. IT IS ABSOLUTELY TRUE. IF YOU THINK ABOUT ANY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT THAT NASA HAS EVER DONE IN HISTORY, IT FOLLOWS A TRADITIONAL BELL CURVE. IT STARTS OFF SMALL AND THEN IT GETS BIGGER AND BIGGER AND THEN AFTER THE DEVELOPMENT IS OVER AND YOU START GOING INTO SUSTAINED OPERATIONS, THE BELL CURVE STARTS COMING BACK DOWN. SO THAT NORMAL BELL CURVE EXISTS HERE. WHAT WE HAVE DONE IS WE HAVE COME OUT OF THE GATE STRONG AND REMEMBER, WE JUST OPENED THE CONVERSATION. THAT’S WHAT WE DID. I’VE HEARD CRITICISM THAT SOMEHOW NASA DIDN’T WORK WITH CONGRESS TO DO THIS OR THE ADMINISTRATION DIDN’T WORK WITH CONGRESS SO IT’S DEAD ON ARRIVAL. THAT IS NOT THE CASE. THE WAY THE PROCESS WORKS, AND I KNOW A LITTLE BIT ABOUT IT, THE WAY THE PROCESS WORKS IS THAT THE ADMINISTRATION MAKES A PROPOSAL TO CONGRESS. BUT THAT’S WHAT IT IS. IT IS A PROPOSAL. THEN IT’S OVER TO CONGRESS TO SAY WHAT THEY WANT TO ACCEPT, WHAT THEY DON’T WANT TO ACCEPT, WHAT THEY WANT TO PLUS UP. AND SO WE HAVE GIVEN THEM WHAT WE BELIEVE IS NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL BUT WHAT WE GAVE THEM WAS AN AMENDMENT FOR THE YEAR 2020. THE NEXT STEP IS WE’VE GOT TO COME UP WITH THE BUDGET PROPOSAL FOR 2021. AND SO THAT PROCESS WE’RE UNDERWAY WITH RIGHT NOW. BUT KNOW THIS. THIS IS A GOOD OUT-OF-THE-GATE FIRST START A VERY HONEST PROPOSAL FROM THE ADMINISTRATION THAT KEEPS US ALL TOGETHER MOVING FORWARD AND I THINK A BI-PARTISAN WAY AND THAT AT THE END OF THE DAY, WE’RE GOING TO BE WORKING WITH CONGRESS TO MAKE SURE THAT THEY’RE GETTING WHAT THEY NEED TO MAKE THIS IS A SUCCESSFUL PROGRAM.>>WONDERFUL. WE’RE GOING TO GO FOR A QUESTION FROM THE AUDIENCE.>>CURTIS FROM THE OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT. MY QUESTION IS BASED ON THE INDUSTRIAL BASE, WHAT I CALL THE SERVICE PROVIDER BASE, AND SINCE WE’RE ON THE VERY AGGRESSIVE TIMELINE, MY QUESTION IS, ARE WE INCORPORATING THE CONCEPT OF MAKING SURE WE HAVE ENOUGH SERVICE PROVIDERS AND NOT A SINGLE SOURCE WHERE IF SOMETHING WERE TO HAPPEN TO THEM, WE’RE STUCK IN SPACE, SO TO SPEAK. CAN YOU TALK ABOUT HOW WE’RE GOING TO BE EXPANDING OUR SERVICE PROVIDER BASE.>>YOU’RE MAKING I THINK AN EXCELLENT POINT WHICH IS NASA WANTS TO BE ONE CUSTOMER OF MANY CUSTOMERS IN A ROBUST COMMERCIAL MARKETPLACE IN LOW-EARTH ORBIT. WE EVENTUALLY WANT TO APPLY THAT TO THE MOON AS WELL BUT WE ALSO WANT TO BE — WE WANT TO HAVE NUMEROUS PROVIDERS THAT ARE COMPETE ON COSTS AND INNOVATION AND SAFETY. WE’RE NOT GOING TO DO ANYTHING THAT JEOPARDIZES SAFETY. IT IS HIGH ON OUR MIND. I’LL LET YOU ANSWER THE QUESTION MORE IN DEPTH.>>ANOTHER THING WE’RE DOING THAT’S IMPORTANT IS WE’RE CREATING INTEROPERABILITY STANDARDS. WE’RE NOT SAYING THE HARDWARE NEEDS TO BE UNIQUELY DESIGNED FOR ONE PARTICULAR APPLICATION. IF YOU CAN MAKE THIS INTERFACE LIKE THE INTERNATIONAL DOCKING STANDARD, NOW MATTER HOW YOU BUILD THE DOCKING INTERFACE, THE TWO VEHICLES CAN COME TOGETHER AND DOCK. WE’RE GOING TO SET ONE FOR RENDEZVOUS AND OPERATIONS AND ONE FOR ATMOSPHERE AND ONE FOR POWER. THAT REALLY OPENS UP THE MARKET. EVEN IF SOMEBODY IS NOT IN THE INITIAL PROCUREMENT AND NOT MOVING FORWARD WITH THIS THE FIRST TIME, THOSE STANDARDS ARE OUT THERE, THEY CAN BE BUILDING, DEVELOPING, THEY CAN BE GETTING READY TO GO AND THEIR HARDWARE CAN PLUG AND PLAY AND MOVE RIGHT INTO THE ARCHITECTURE AND MOVE FORWARD. WE’RE TRYING TO BUILD AN ARCHITECTURE THAT’S OPEN AND ALLOWS FOLKS TO COME AT WHAT SPEEDS THEY’RE READY TO COME IN AND WE CAN MAKE INTERCHANGES BACK AND FORTH WITH DIFFERENT PROVIDES AS WE MOVE FORWARD AND WE’RE NOT DEPENDENT UPON A SINGLE PROVIDER. THIS IS KIND OF AN EXPERIMENT IN SUSTAINABILITY BUT IT’S BASED ON THINGS WE’VE DONE WITH SPACE STATION, IT’S BASE ON THINGS WE’VE DONE INTERNATIONALLY SO IT’S PROVEN IN THAT SENSE BUT NOW CAN WE TAKE IT TO THE NEXT LEVEL AND DO HUMAN LANDING CAPABILITY ON THE MOON. THAT’S THE GOAL.>>I WOULD ADD THAT THE OPEN ARCHITECTURE ALLOWS US NOT JUST TO HAVE MULTIPLE CONTRACTORS AND SUPPLIERS AND SERVICES IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BUT IN FACT ALL AROUND THE WORLD. THE OPEN ARCHITECTURE THE WAY WE DO DATA, THE WAY WE DO COMMUNICATIONS, THE WAY WE DO DOCKING, LIFE SUPPORT, AVIONICS, ALL OF THAT DATA IS GOING TO BE MADE AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC ON THE INTERNET, ANYBODY CAN DOWNLOAD IT AND IF THERE’S A SMALL COUNTRY OUT THERE, FOR EXAMPLE, THAT WANTS TO PLUG INTO THE SYSTEM, WE WOULD LOVE TO HAVE THEIR CAPABILITY JOIN US. SO THIS IS A GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO NOT JUST GET MORE PROVIDERS DOMESTICALLY BUT ALL AROUND THE WORLD AND HAVE THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA LEAD A COALITION OF NATIONS FOR A SUSTAINABLE RETURN TO THE MOON TO PROVE THE TECHNOLOGY, RETIRE THE RISK AND GO ON TO MARS.>>GREAT. WE’LL TAKE ANOTHER QUESTION FROM THOSE SUBMITTED. HOW DO YOU ENVISION EACH CENTER’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE MOON INITIATIVE? FOR EXAMPLE, WHAT IS GODDARD’S ROLE AND CURRENT PLAN?>>WE GO THROUGH A PROCESS FOR ALL OF THE TECHNOLOGIES AND ALL OF THE CAPABILITIES WE’RE DEVELOPING AND THAT PROCESS ULTIMATELY WILL DETERMINE WHAT CENTERS ARE GOING TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR WHICH ACTIVITIES. BILL, IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO ADDRESS THAT.>>FOR EXAMPLE, GODDARD IS REALLY CRITICAL NOW IN OUR COMMUNICATIONS AREA. THEY DO A LOT OF OUR ACTIVITIES FOR COMMUNICATIONS. THEY’LL CONTINUE TO DO THAT. WE’RE LOOKING AT THINGS LIKE LASER COMMUNICATION WHICH WE’RE WORKING WITH SPACE TECHNOLOGY MISSION DIRECTORATE ON AND THAT ACTIVITY WILL BE PART OF ORION, IT WILL BE PART OF GETWAY MOVING FORWARD. THOSE THINGS ARE THERE, ORBITAL MECHANICS, LIKE DYNAMICS, GODDARD WILL PLAY A ROLE THERE. SLS, ORION HAS BEEN ASSIGNED. LUNAR ELEMENTS, WE’LL FIGURE OUT WHERE ALL THOSE GO AND HAVE DISCUSSIONS ACROSS THE AGENCY TO FIGURE THOSE OUT. WE’LL FIGURE OUT A WAY TO USE THE WHOLE OF THE AGENCY. THIS IS SOMETHING KIND OF NEAT, EVERY CENTER CONTRIBUTING. YOU WILL FIND PIECES AND ALSO SEE US BUILD INTERCENTER TEAMS WHERE WE CAN HAVE TEAMS WORKING FROM MULTIPLE CENTERS ALL TEAM TOGETHER TO MOVE FORWARD. EVEN THE COMMERCIAL SERVICES PROGRAM THOMAS IS DOING IS ALSO PRETTY MUCH A MULTICENTER ACTIVITY SPONSORED BY A BUNCH OF DIFFERENT CIVIL SERVANTS THAT ALL COME TOGETHER AND WORK ON THEIR PROJECT. SO WE’LL GET THOSE DETAILS TOGETHER AS WE COME TOGETHER. WE’LL WORK WITH THE CENTER DIRECTORS. I THINK THIS TOWN HALL IS KIND OF THE FIRST BEGINNING OF US STARTING TO HAVE THIS DIALOGUE WITH THE WORK FORCE TO SEE WHERE FOLKS CONTRIBUTE. THERE MAY BE WORK GOING ON DOWN IN THE CENTERS WE’RE NOT AWARE OF THAT MAYBE CENTER DIRECTORS ARE, THEY NEED TO BRING THOSE FORWARD. HOW CAN THEY BE PART OF THE EFFORT AND WE’LL FIGURE OUT A WAY TO PULL THAT TOGETHER TO BUILD A STRONG, COHESIVE TEAM TO DO THIS ACTIVITY.>>I WOULD ADD IF IT’S OKAY, WHEN HE SAYS AN ALL OF NASA APPROACH, HE MEANS ALL OF THE MISSION DIRECTORATE, ALL OF THE CENTERS AND THAT’S ABSOLUTELY TRUE BUT IT GOES BEYOND THAT. THIS IS AN ALL OF AMERICA APPROACH. WHEN WE THINK ABOUT HOW WE’RE GOING TO GET OUR ASTRONAUTS TO THE MOON, THEY’RE GOING TO LAUNCH ON THE SLS SERVICE MODULE AND THAT MAKES THE PROGRAM INTERNATIONAL. THAT IS CRITICAL TO ACHIEVING THE END STATE OF THE NEXT MAN OR THE FIRST WOMAN ON THE MOON IN 2024. IT IS ALSO TRUE THAT IN ORDER TO GET THOSE LANDERS AGGREGATED AT THE GATEWAY, WE’RE GOING TO NEED A LOT OF LAUNCHES WITH ROCKETS THAT WE DON’T PURCHASE, OWN AND OPERATE BUT WE’RE TALKING ABOUT BUYING SERVICES. PEOPLE WOULD CALL IT COMMERCIAL. THOSE LANDERS ULTIMATELY NEED TO BE LAUNCHED COMMERCIALLY AND WE’RE LOOKING AT PROCURING THOSE LANDERS COMMERCIALLY AS WELL. SO THIS IS AN ALL OF AMERICA APPROACH. WHEN WE PLACE THE NEXT HUMANS ON THE MOON IN 2024, IT WILL BE AN ALL OF THE ABOVE, VERY UNITING EFFORT THAT BRINGS EVERYBODY TOGETHER FOR THIS ONE MOMENT IN TIME THAT WILL BE I THINK JUST MONUMENTAL AND SOMETHING WE CAN ALL TELL OUR CHILDREN AND GRANDCHILDREN ABOUT.>>FANTASTIC. A QUESTION FROM THE AUDIENCE.>>WHAT ACTIONABLE STRATEGIES IS IS AGENCY TAKING TO HIRE A NEXT GENERATIONAL WORK FORCE ULTIMATELY IMPLEMENTING AND LEADING THESE PROGRAMS IN THE DECADES TO COME?>>THAT’S AN IMPORTANT QUESTION AND YOU’RE HITTING SOMETHING THAT WE THINK ABOUT QUITE FREQUENTLY. YOU LOOK AT THE AVERAGE AGE OF OUR WORK FORCE, WE’RE NEAR 50. IS THAT RIGHT, BOB? OR ARE WE AT 50? WE’RE AT 50. WHICH MEANS WE HAVE THIS BOW WAVE OF RETIREMENT COMING. SO THAT’S A CHALLENGE. BUT IT’S ALSO AN OPPORTUNITY BECAUSE WE NEED THAT NEXT GENERATION TO GET INSPIRED AND ENTHUSED. IMAGINE HOW MANY PEOPLE ARE GOING TO WANT TO JOIN NASA OR JOIN ONE OF OUR SERVICE PROVIDERS, MAYBE JOIN ONE OF OUR CONTRACTORS WHEN THEY SEE THIS MONUMENTAL ACHIEVEMENT. YOU WALK AROUND NASA TODAY AND EVERYBODY WHO IS OF AGE WILL TELL YOU THEY REMEMBER EXACTLY WHERE THEY WERE WHEN NEIL ARMSTRONG AND BUZZ ALDRIN LANDED ON THE MOON. WE’RE TRYING TO CREATE THAT MOMENT FOR THE NEXT GENERATION. THAT’S WHAT WE’RE TRYING TO DO WITH THIS STUNNING ACHIEVEMENT. AND THERE’S A LOT OF WORK TO DO. BUT I THINK WE’RE GETTING THERE BUT WE DO HAVE TO BE THINKING VERY ACUTELY ON THIS VERY SPECIFIC CHALLENGE WHICH IS THE WORK FORCE WHICH LARGELY IN THE NEXT TEN YEARS IS GOING TO START RETIRING.>>THIS IS A PRETTY EXCITING TIME BECAUSE IN MY CAREER, THE DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT IS MAYBE EVERY 10, 20 YEARS SO MAYBE IN YOUR CAREER, YOU GET ONE CHANCE TO SEE A MAJOR DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY. WE’VE GOT TONS OF DEVELOPMENT GOING ON RIGHT NOW ACROSS THE AGENCY SO THIS IS A GREAT TIME TO BRING IN NEW FOLKS AND ACTUALLY GET THEM INVOLVED. THE WORK AT THE KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, GETTING THE MOBILE LAUNCH PLATFORM READY TO GO OPERATE AND DOING THE TESTS OUT AT THE PAD LATER THIS SUMMER, THOSE ARE REALLY ONCE-IN-A-LIFETIME EXPERIENCES FOR FOLKS TO GET INVOLVED HANDS-ON, TO SEE HOW HARDWARE IS DEVELOPED, HOW SYSTEMS ARE PUT TOGETHER. SAME THING WITH THE MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER, WHERE THE SLS 135-FOOT-HYDROGEN TANK SITS THERE READY TO BE TESTED IN A WAY IT’S NEVER BEEN TESTED. THE INTERTANK SECTION IS ALSO GOING THROUGH STRUCTURAL TESTING. THESE ARE GREAT TIMES FOR NEW EMPLOYEES TO GET HANDS-ON EXPERIENCE WITH REAL HARDWARE THAT REALLY AUGMENTS THE LEARNING YOU GET IN SCHOOL AND IT AUGMENTS THE ACADEMIC LEARNING BUT IT REALLY GIVES YOU THE HANDS-ON EXPERIENCE SO WE NEED TO MAKE SURE WE TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THAT AND WE NEED TO BRING IN CO-OPS, SUMMER INTERNS, THIS IS A CHANCE FOR NEW FOLKS TO GET A CHANCE TO SEE AND INTERACT WITH HARDWARE THAT WILL REALLY SET THEIR CAREER IN A VERY POSITIVE DIRECTION MOVING FORWARD.>>I’LL ADD IN SPACE TECHNOLOGY, WE REALLY VIEW THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR EARLY CAREER FOLKS AS BEING AN ESSENTIAL PART OF WHAT WE DO. SO WE THINK WE’RE THE PERFECT PLATFORM TO GIVE PEOPLE A CHANCE TO TRY AND LEAD AND IF IT FAILS, THEN YOU LEARN. SO WE’RE EXPANDING OUR EARLY CAREER INITIATIVE ACTIVITIES AND OTHER ACTIVITIES FOR OUR EARLY CAREER AND APPLYING THEM TO ACTIVITIES THAT WILL SUPPORT US FOR THE MOON.>>REAL QUICK JUST BY SHOW OF HANDS, IF YOU ARE HERE RIGHT NOW AND YOU ARE AN INTERN AT NASA, WILL YOU RAISE YOUR HAND? WE’VE GOT A GOOD NUMBER. SO OUR INTERN PROGRAM IS GROWING. I KNOW MIKE KINCAID HAS BEEN WORKING VERY HARD ON IT. I ENCOURAGE YOU AT THE CENTERS ALL ACROSS THIS AGENCY WHEN YOU HAVE INTERNS, GIVE THEM MEANINGFUL WORK. EMBRACE THEM. ENCOURAGE THEM. ENTICE THEM TO COME BACK ONE DAY. THAT’S WHAT THAT PROGRAM IS ALL ABOUT. AND WE’VE HAD GREAT SUCCESS WITH IT. BUT WE’RE GOING TO NEED MORE GREAT SUCCESS IN THE COMING YEARS AS YOU CORRECTLY IDENTIFIED.>>GREAT. WE’RE GOING TO TAKE ONE OR TWO MORE QUESTIONS BEFORE WE WRAP UP. HERE’S ONE. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF THE MISSION TO MARS DIRECTORATE? WHEN WILL NASA REORGANIZE? THE MISSION DIRECTORATE TO FOCUS ON THE MOON AND MARS INSTEAD OF THE CURRENT ORGANIZATION THAT GIVES PRIORITY TO THE ISS AND SLS?>>IT’S A WONDERFUL QUESTION, SOMETHING WE’RE THINKING ABOUT. CERTAINLY ONE OF THE CHALLENGES THAT WE FACE IS THAT NASA DOESN’T GET TO REORGANIZE ALONE AND UNAFRAID. I WISH WE DID. WE HAVE TO TALK TO THE FOLKS OVER ON THE HILL. THE APPROPRIATIERTORS THAT ULTIMATELY WRITE OUR CHECKS HAVE A KEEN INTEREST IN HOW WE’RE ORGANIZED AND WE HAVE HAD SOME PEOPLE EXPRESS SKEPTICISM ABOUT THE DIRECTION THAT WE’RE GOING. THAT BEING SAID, KNOW THIS. WE ARE TRYING TO FOCUS ON WHAT WORKS TO ACHIEVE THAT ULTIMATE GOAL IN 2024. THAT’S WHAT WE’RE TRYING TO DO. AND I DON’T KNOW AT THE END OF THE DAY HOW WE’RE GOING TO BE ORGANIZED. KNOW THAT WHERE WE ARE RIGHT NOW IS WHERE WE ARE. WORK WITHIN THE CURRENT SYSTEM AS IT EXISTS AND WHEN THERE IS NEW NEWS, WHICH THERE ISN’T RIGHT NOW, WHEN THERE IS NEW NEWS, WE’LL MAKE SURE EVERYBODY IS INFORMED AT THE RIGHT TIME. RIGHT NOW THERE’S NOTHING NEW TO REPORT. WE’RE JUST WORKING THROUGH A PROCESS. THE OTHER THING THAT’S IMPORTANT TO NOTE IS WE HAVE THE PLANS ON THE AGENDA BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATION SAID WE’RE GOING TO ACCELERATE BY FOUR YEARS. AND THEN THE ADMINISTRATION SAID ANYTHING THAT’S NOT NECESSARY IS A DISTRACTION. SO WE’RE TRYING TO FIGURE OUT WHAT ARE THE THINGS WE NEED TO DO, WHAT ARE THE THINGS WE DON’T NEED TO DO, HOW DO WE NOT CREATE EXTRA BURDENS GIVEN THAT THERE ARE SOME SKEPTICISM ON THE HILL, THOSE KIND OF ACTIVITIES.>>ANY QUESTIONS FROM THE AUDIENCE? OKAY. WITH THAT, WE’RE GOING TO WRAP UP AND GIVE SOME CLOSING REMARKS.>>SURE. I JUST WANT TO SAY THANK YOU, EVERYBODY FOR YOUR TIME TODAY ALL ACROSS THE AGENCY AND OF COURSE THOSE OF YOU IN THIS ROOM HERE AT HEADQUARTERS. WE’VE BEEN GIVEN THIS MONUMENTAL OPPORTUNITY AND IT WASN’T JUST BACKED UP WITH RHETORIC. IT WAS BACKED UP WITH A BUDGET REQUEST. THE NEXT STEP IS TO COMMUNICATE WHY THIS IS SO IMPORTANT FOR OUR COUNTRY. WE’VE HAD THE CONVERSATION ABOUT MY ELEVEN-YEAR-OLD DAUGHTER. I’M SURE THERE’S PEOPLE IN THIS ROOM THAT HAVE THEIR OWN DAUGHTERS AND WANT THEM TO SEE THEMSELVES IN THIS ROLE IN THE FUTURE. NOT THAT EVERYBODY IS GOING TO BE AN ASTRONAUT BUT PEOPLE NEED TO UNDERSTAND THAT OPPORTUNITIES LIKE THIS ARE AVAILABLE TO EVERYBODY IN AMERICA. AND THAT’S REALLY WHAT THIS IS ALL ABOUT. BUT WHEN WE THINK ABOUT HOW IMPORTANT SPACE IS TO OUR COUNTRY, WE NEED TO BE ABLE TO COMMUNICATE NOT JUST INSIDE THE AGENCY BUT OUTSIDE THE AGENCY. WE NEED TO BE ABLE TO COMMUNICATE HOW THE APOLLO PROGRAM HAS LED TO ABSOLUTELY STUNNING DEVELOPMENTS THAT HAVE ELEVATED THE HUMAN CONDITION. THE WAY WE COMMUNICATE AND A LOT OF YOU HAVE HEARD ME TALK ABOUT THIS BEFORE. I HAVE TO KEEP TALKING ABOUT THIS. BY THE WAY, THIS IS ON NASA TV. WHAT DOES THAT MEAN? THAT MEANS PEOPLE WHO AREN’T AFFILIATED WITH NASA WILL BE WATCHING IT. THE WAY WE COMMUNICATE HAS BEEN CHANGED, TRANSFORMED BECAUSE OF WHAT NASA HAS DONE. OVER THE HORIZON COMMUNICATIONS, DirecTV, DISH NETWORK, XM RADIO, INTERNET BROADBAND FROM SPACE. THE GUY WHO COMES FROM OKLAHOMA, WITHOUT INTERNET BROADBAND FROM SPACE, THERE WOULD BE A LOT OF US THAT DIDN’T HAVE DIFFERENT INTERNET BROADBAND AT ALL AND NOW THAT’S TRANSFORMING THE ENTIRE WORLD BUT IT GOES BEYOND THAT. THE WAY WE PRODUCE FOOD, THE WAY WE PRODUCE ENERGY, THE WAY WE DO DISASTER RELIEF, NATIONAL SECURITY, WEATHER PREDICTION, UNDERSTAND CLIMATE, ALL OF THESE THINGS HAVE BEEN TRANSFORMED BECAUSE OF THIS LITTLE AGENCY THAT GETS REALLY LESS THAN ONE-HALF OF 1% OF THE FEDERAL BUDGET. AND BY THE WAY, THERE’S POLLING OUT THERE THAT INDICATES MOST OF AMERICA BELIEVES WE GET OVER 6% OF THE FEDERAL BUDGET. WE’RE AT LESS THAN ONE-HALF OF 1%. THE RETURN ON INVESTMENT FROM THIS LITTLE AGENCY HAS ELEVATED THE HUMAN CONDITION IN WAYS THAT NOBODY IMAGINED IN THE 1960s OR THE 1970s. AND WHAT WE’RE ABOUT TO DO IS GOING TO TRANSFORM THE WORLD AGAIN. WHEN WE GO TO THE MOON, IT’S GOING TO REQUIRE NEW TECHNOLOGY. IT’S GOING TO REQUIRE US TO LEARN MORE ABOUT SCIENCE THAN WE’VE EVER LEARNED BEFORE. WE’RE GOING TO HAVE TO INVENT THINGS AND DO THINGS AND IT WILL ONCE AGAIN TRANSFORM THE HUMAN CONDITION SO THAT 50 YEARS FROM NOW WHEN PEOPLE ARE CELEBRATING THE ARTEMIS PROGRAM, 50 YEARS FROM NOW WHEN PEOPLE ARE CELEBRATING THE NEW AGENDA TO GO TO THE MOON WITH THE NEXT MAN AND THE FIRST WOMAN, PEOPLE ARE GOING TO SAY LOOK AT HOW THIS HAS TRANSFORMED AND ELEVATED THE HUMAN CONDITION. THIS IS A GREAT OPPORTUNITY FOR US. IT’S NOT JUST RHETORIC. IT’S BEEN MATCHED BY BUDGET. WE NEED TO COMMUNICATE TO ALL OF AMERICA HOW THIS IS GOOD FOR OUR COUNTRY AND IN FACT GOOD FOR THE WORLD AND OF COURSE WE HERE IN WASHINGTON ARE GOING TO BE ON THE HILL TALKING ABOUT HOW THIS IS A STRONG BI-PARTISAN EFFORT TO GET TO THAT END STATE WHICH WE THINK IS SO IMPORTANT WHICH IS AN ACCELERATED LUNAR PROGRAM THAT AT THE END OF THE DAY IS SUSTAINABLE. IN OTHER WORDS, THIS TIME WE’RE AT THE MOON, WE’RE GOING TO STAY, WE’RE GOING TO PROVE TECHNOLOGY, WE’RE GOING TO RETIRE RISK AND WE’RE GOING TO TAKE ALL OF IT FOR THE FIRST MISSION TO MARS. SO THANK YOU FOR JOINING US FOR THE TOWN HALL. AND WE LOOK FORWARD TO GETTING TO WORK TO ACHIEVE THIS GOAL. THANK YOU GUYS.

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