Types of Majority mentioned in Indian Constitution
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Types of Majority mentioned in Indian Constitution


Hello Friends,
Welcome to PrepMate Classes! In this lecture, we will learn about types
of majority. There are four types of majority.
1. Simple majority: Refers to majority among members present and voting. 2. Absolute majority: Refers to majority among
the total strength of the house. 3. Effective majority: Refers to majority
among then members of the house. 4. Special majority: is of three types: a) 2/3rd of members present and voting: b) 2/3rd of the members present and voting
and not less than ½ of the total strength of the house: c) 2/3rd of total strength of the house Let us first understand absolute, effective
and simple majority with the help of an example. The total strength of Lok Sabha is 545 members.
Absolute majority is more than 50% of total strength, i.e. 273 or more members in case
of Lok Sabha. Suppose there are 5 vacant seats in Lok Sabha.
The seats can be vacant due to death, resignation or removal of members.
Total Strength Less Vacant seats is equal to 540 members. This figure of 540 is the
effective strength or then members of Lok Sabha. Effective majority is more than 50%
of then members, i.e. 271 or more in our example. Suppose, further, 40 members are absent. The
members present are 500. The members which abstain from voting are 50.
Thus, the members present and voting are 450. The Simple majority is more than 50% of the
present and voting, Thus, in our example it is 226 or more.
Let us understand Special Majority. Special majority is of three types.
Ist type: More than 2/3rd of members present and voting.
For Example – The total strength of Rajya Sabha is 245 members. Suppose 150 members
are present and voting, then special majority required to pass the resolution is 2/3rd of
members present and voting, i.e. 100 or more. Special Majority of IInd type: 2/3rd of the
members present and voting and not less than ½ of the total strength of the house. In
this type of special majority, there are two conditions:
1. 2/3rd of the members present and voting 2. not less than ½ of the total strength
of the house Both the conditions are required to be fulfilled.
Let us take an Example. Suppose 200 members are present and voting in Lok Sabha. All the
members approve the resolution. In such a case, first condition is fulfilled because
more than 2/3rd of the members present and voting have approved the resolution.
Second condition remains unfulfilled because less than half of the total strength of the
house approves the resolution. Let us take another example. Suppose 300 members
are present in Lok Sabha and 280 members vote in favour of passing the resolution. In this
case, more than 2/3rd of the members present & voting, vote in favour of passing the resolution.
Also, the strength of members voting in favour of resolution is not less than half of the
total strength of the house (i.e. 273). Thus, the resolution stands passed.
Special majority of IIIrd type: 2/3rd of total strength of the house. This is the highest
majority required for passing any resolution. For Lok Sabha, it is 545×2/3=363.3 approx.
364 members. For Rajya Sabha, it is 245×2/3=163.33 approx.
164 members. Application of Simple majority
Simple majority is required in the following cases: Passing an
a) Ordinary bill, b) Money bill,
c) Finance bill, d) No-Confidence Motion,
e) Election of Speaker and Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha and Legislative Assembly,
f) Election of Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson of Rajya Sabha and Legislative Council,
g) Approval by parliament of State emergency h) Approval by parliament of Financial emergency Application of Absolute majority
Absolute majority is not mentioned anywhere in the constitution. It is required to form
the government and to ensure continuous survival of the Government. Application of Effective Majority
Effective majority is required for removal of Presiding officers such as Chairperson
and Deputy-Chairperson of Rajya Sabha and Legislative Council, Speaker and Deputy-Speaker
of Lok Sabha and Legislative Assembly. Application of Special Majority
Ist type – 2/3rd of members present and voting: This type of majority is required under Art.249
& Art.312. Both these articles provide special powers to Rajya Sabha. IInd type 2/3rd of the members present and
voting and not less than ½ of the total strength of the house: This type of majority is required for
1. Removal of Judges of Supreme Court and High Court, CAG and Chief Election Commissioner
2. Approval of National emergency by Parliament 3. Constitutional Amendment 2/3rd of total strength of the house:
This type of majority is required for impeachment of President. Let us quickly revise the types of majorities.
Simple majorities: Majority among present & voting. Absolute Majority: Majority among total strength
of the house. Effective Majority: Majority among then members. Special majority: It is of three types-
i) 2/3rd of the members present & voting. ii) 2/3rd of the members present & voting
& not less than ½ of the total strength of the house.
iii) 2/3rd of total strength of the house. Let us evaluate ourselves. Q1. Which of the following resolution does
not require special majority for its passage? Removal of vice-president. Vice-president
is also chairman of Rajya sabha. We have learnt that presiding officers can be removed by
effective majority. Q2. In which of the following cases, effective
strength can be equal to the total strength of the house when there are no vacant seats?
In that case, total strength is equal to the then members of the house. Thus, option (a)
is the correct answer. Thank you for watching this video. For Best learning you can watch this video
along with Prepmate-Cengage UPSC series which is available online as well as offline.
Book feature: complete subject in a single book with practice and past year questions
at the end of the chapters. Model answers for UPSC Mains from authors. Using the application
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of videos, mock prelims, answer writing practice and regular updates.

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