Unit 4 Amendments 11 thru 27
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Unit 4 Amendments 11 thru 27


hello welcome to our unit 4 notes on
amendments number 11 through 27 we spent some time recently talking
about the first ten amendments which are collectively called the bill a rights they’re gonna go through the remaining
amendments that they came after the Bill of Rights and I we currently have a total of 27
amendments search they were gonna talk about basically phase 2 now we talked earlier
about the difficulty in passing a bill to becoming a lock it is even more
difficult to get an amendment passed and added to the constitution the estimate that over the years
probably about 10,000 amendments have been proposed and only twenty-seven have made it I’m
not serve prettier three lower rate there now this
is even more incredible when you think about in the last roughly
two hundred and twenty years or so only seventeen amendments have been
added to the constitution so when you take out those first 10
amendments that were added almost immediately after the a constitution is ratified I’m
you’re talking about an average only about one amendment added roughly about every 13 years or so
so it’s a very difficult process how we won’t spend a lot of time on the
process today but basically there are two methods by which you can add amendment to the
Constitution one of them has been used to ratify or to add all 27 comments um the other method method to has never
actually been used before to admin Russell said about method one
this is the one that has been used um basically for every moment actually
every moment how what happens is amendments proposed
by two-thirds of both houses of Congress so it has to go to the senate and the
house reserves and then once it’s proposing voted on
with two-thirds in the house both then it goes to each state and each
state then holds an election or not really an election but votes in their particular state and then it’s
not ratified it doesn’t become a
constitutional amendment until it’s been approved in three forts
have the state so um a pretty tough row there when you
gotta get I two-thirds about houses gotta go to the
state’s man you gotta get three-fourths of the states before it becomes an amendment a method to the one that’s
never actually been used before found the first part is is different the
second price the same but instead of going through congress um
a constitutional convention is proposed by two-thirds have the state
legislatures so it is possible to do this without
congress’s approval and that’s kind of why they came up with this one so if it’s
more like a generated from the state perspective and sort of congress’
respective you need two-thirds of the state legislatures to propose a
convention and then once it’s written then it goes
to the states it has to be approved by three-fourths
of the states at that point slits when talk about each of the remaining
amendments and you don’t have to necessarily write down
the date they did put the date on the slides you can know when the amendment was ratified were added to
the constitution number give you kinda a brief summary a
beach the amendments I’m a min 11 I ratified in 1795 explains what must happen for a citizen
have one state to sue another state so at this time period
they’re kinda still some issues about you know jurisdiction have laws and
stuff so basically just an explanation or
clarification if you wanna see somebody from another state amendment 12 this was ratified in 1804 common this
happens as a result I love kinda some crazy things happening in the
electoral process um remember we talked about earlier one
of the things that happened was the person that got the most electoral
college votes was president the person I got the second most
electoral college votes was vice president which would often result in people have
different parties being president vice president so on this is kinda clarifies and
explains the process of how we elect the President um we still have the cultures
convention just kinda treat a couple things and
like I said one other things was I’m after this point you’re voting on a
ticket see voting for like the pair president vice president and not just
one person and then seeing you gets the runner-up in
becoming vice president so again 12 the moment ratified in 1804 now the next three amendments 13 14 and
15 are often collectively called the Civil
War amendments because they come as a result to the Civil War there’s a
lot about political change that happened as a result to the war I’m
probably one of the biggest changes was the fact that you had millions of people that were slaves
suddenly become citizens I’ve the United States so let’s take a
look at these three civil war amendments if you wanna cry like maybe
bracket these on your you’re not a packet I mean kinda cue
track abuse as the Civil War amendments Rights Amendment 13
is ratified in 1865 and basically the purpose for the 13th
amendment is to officially end slavery now if you happen to i get a chance to
see the new movie that’s out called Lincoln Spielberg is the a director of the the
movie very good movie basically talks about the process have
howling can is able to gain enough votes in support to pass the 13th amendment fascinating
movie um little bit deep on the political jorgen and kinda keeping track of
everything but I’m a really good look at specifically how Lincoln was able to get the 13th amendment
passed in 1865 the second have the so warm and mince
the 14th members ratified in 1868 and this describes the civil rights of
each citizen basically this takes away the
three-fifths compromise and I basically just clarifies that a
slaves her people that were slaves now have
full a citizenship rights there’s a lot of things that happened
after the Civil War where in some cases things might be written
down on paper as far as to rate to the Citizen but people kinda
manipulated a little bit so this is kind of a clarification that
describes a civil rights and every citizen largely as a result of how
african-americans were being treated after the Civil War how the last so warm and
that the 15th amendment was ratified in 1870 and even though after americans
were given the right to vote there were still a lotta love things
that were happening in the South was preventing african-americans from voting so the 15
the democrat lee states that race can not be a qualification for voting so there’s no way that you can have I’ll
little little things in the voting rules that
made it almost impossible for afro-americans to vote so um all kinds of things are tried in
various parts of the at the South and they would have literacy test they
would have different kinds a poll taxes we had to pay a tax to work there are
all kinds have heard all set up to try and prevent african-americans
from voting the 150 very clearly states that that can that be a qualification race cannot be called
cation in any way shape or form to vote right sixteenth Amendment a little bit times faster this is
ratified in 1913 and this creates the federal income tax so at this point a it’s an amendment
that the federal government can create an income tax for the
citizens of the United States now this does not impact States income
tax um that is a power given to the states
this creates the federal income tax and as we mentioned a little
bit the other day just kinda love interest you’re you’re after to jot this down right um there are some
states that you have no income tax whatsoever Alaska Florida Nevada South Dakota Texas
Washington Wyoming have no states income tax so if you live
in the states you still care a federal income tax but for example
like you’re in a Missouri we pay a a federal income tax and a
separate state income tax so discuss something again
she’s there heard the seventeenth Amendment ratified
in nineteen at thirteen as well this describes the election of senators
to congress found the way that we currently elect senators is we as the people vote
for he’s gonna represent our state so for example we just I had an election
and a claim a casket was elected as a the senator from Missouri um up
until this point though what happened in most states was the state legislature selected
somebody’s and then represent the state as a senator so the seventy the member
gives this power back to the people directly: and doesn’t leave it up to the states
legislatures to choose alright so this is a really interesting
a member the eighteenth Amendment was ratified in nineteen 19 and this man’s the manufacture sale or
transportation any alcohol in the United States there
was a a big movement that a kinda blamed a lot of the social ills
the United States on drinking and so they gained enough momentum to
pass the amendment that says that you can’t manufacture and you can’t sell
it you can transport alcohol um but what typically happened once
prohibition started this is called prohibition is that people still continue to drink
alcohol this will continue to make overhaul but there was no longer legal so the
people that began to control alcohol we’re organized crime bosses so people were still making money of a
rocker Holland people were still using it but now and so the people legally making
a profit after that it was all going towards organize crime
and organize crime was now able to use that money then to become even more powerful so as of
nineteen 19 the eighteenth Amendment says you can’t
manufacture sell are transferred alcohol but will get
back to this amendment a little bit later right the nineteenth Amendment ratified
in nineteen twenty finally gives women the right to vote in elections now some individual states that giving women
the right to vote previous to this for example Wyoming was the first state to give women the
right to vote and they did so quite a bit earlier but this officially makes a mess in
amendments that across the United States women are given the right to vote in
election so this was kind of amazes me that it took
until nineteen twenty for women to gain the right to vote so that is the 19th amendment the twenty the moment is ratified in
1933 this is gramm’s a process between the election and when the new president
officially takes offense so we’re currently in that time for
right now so we voted in the general election for the
president but now after waits for at the official inauguration day when
the president is sworn in and they used to have it as a fairly
long period time I believe at one point it was like maybe like 4-5
months in between the election and and the actual inauguration because people had to travel by horse is
if you’re in Georgia near the travel up to washington DC they
would take quite a while but in 1933 they decided was not really
a major are reason to have it so delayed so
there’s still that time period between the election and the nitration but the 20-member kind of like shrink it
down a little bit so will experience that a little bit once
we come back from Christmas break in know how the
inauguration that kinda stuff um also the twenty-fifth amendment does
act kinda detail a little bit about the
order of the session so there was never really like a in
official plan for what happens if the president is assassinated or what happens if the president is I’m
not even that even assassinated but maybe just
like injured or maybe has a stroker is able to make decisions they didn’t really have a specific order
the kind I just always wet bio the vice president’s gonna take over um but they didn’t have a lot of plans
after that officially and people started to come here we will
what happens if the president vice president for example um guy for sake were killed in an
accident or something we had have some kinda plan for who
would then take over as president otherwise it would create chaos and if
you’re a country that wanted to for example attack the United States I’m
we don’t want to have any indecision when are we don’t know who’s
in control or who’s in in in power as far as the the president
moms who want to clarify that so what they created as result so this
was I with the con order secession and %uh this is our current one right
now um just pulled it up by the other day and a further slide here so if the
president would be incapacitated than the vice president obviously takes
over but then the person after that would be the speaker of the house and if you look at this %uh slide it’s kinda
visting because you can tell on the top here there’s a key all the blue are democrats
red Republic and independents are in grey there so like that the the second person in that
order secession is actually Republican I’ve been here is that the speaker the
house most people on this list of course are democrats this is the president’s cabinet so the
president was able to select these people and typically when you select a
candidate you pick people that are the same political party is you Obama did take some people from the
republican party I’m to be on his pic his cabinet kenneth was a show of good will so this
shows you the order all the way down to number
seventeen as far as who take over if something would happen to the people
above them on the list and one kinda interesting
thing when the president gives his State of the Union address that’s the one time during the year when
typically all these people would be in the same location but the next time you watch the State of
the Union address pay close attention because they have a law that says that none of
these people I’m sorry not knowledgeable I love these people cannot be in the
same place at the same time so for example if something would happen
in the Capitol building while the president’s giving us to the Union
address and all these people were in the
building then there would be nobody left if there was like a bomb or something and everybody was killed so they can
have rotated and they typically say it when the president is coming into the chamber but there’s
always one person that’s held out and is it a undisclosed
location far away from the capital so if
something would happen to everybody in the capital third be still somebody on this list and
they would take over as president the United States so and a little bit
about a little trivia facts over the next time the president gives us a the
union go ahead train was late for that rights
we talked about the a probation amendment earlier well in 1933 they decided that this was
not going very well so they decided to basically a race the 18th amendment with the 21st
amendment so found this say ended the prohibition of
alcohol in the United States so again this amendment doesn’t really
do anything other than wipeouts a previous amendment now what time
students will say why don’t we just like you know totally race the 18th amendment
and make the 19th amendment the 18th amendment that you’re at the moment the
ninety the moment well that would be pretty confusing so
the 18th amendment is still an amendment but it’s basically just been voided so a
lot of times when you see it in a book or a text book and if you look at it online for example
they’ll have the text to this 18th amendment but there will be a line through
it, meaning that it’s been basically erased and spend Nolan Boyd so that the 21st amendment. The 22nd
amendment happens in 1951 and this limits a President to two
consecutive terms of office which sucked but this little bit but at George Washington served two
terms in office and then step down and that became the president for a
while I’m it wasn’t technically a lot and that became the president for a
while I’m it wasn’t technically a lot and that became the president for a
while I’m it wasn’t technically a lot established that people would not serve
longer than two terms love office and then we had a president
FDR and when FDR came into office he was
elected to four consecutive terms as this is in the 1930s and 1940s so
people started to wonder cash should we maybe have a limit so that we don’t have
somebody potentially running you know and being
reelected like you know four five six times and so this
amendment was directly result love FDR’s presidency now that people
are like upset about it but they thought that maybe you should have you know a little a little bit more
structure to the to consecutive term idea so that’s that
amendment 2013 members ratified in 1961 and add this gives the district of
columbia 3 electoral college votes and that we talked about this with the
electoral college but up until 1961 you could live in our nation’s capital
and still not have a vote for President of the United States so I’m pretty incredible they change this
the district Columbia is not state right they did not make it a state or
anything they just basically said we’re gonna give you three electoral college
votes just like we give Montana or North
Dakota or any other state that has three electoral college votes my 24th mm it’s
ratified in 1964 this makes any tax two votes or what’s
called the poll tax illegal so there were still some kinda things
lingering in this in there primarily the South where they were a little taxes being
placed on voting and they don’t want to have any
attachment to paying a fee to be able to vote and so I this
basically clarifies no poor tax in any way shape or form
when people vote this is ratified in 1964 the twenty-fifth amendment sets up the
process for replacing the president in case there’s a death or illness so this clear fighting this comes in
1967 this clarifies what happens if I for
example the president’s is that killed with the president has an
accident has a fall for example and has a head injury how do we determine that the president
as well enough to be president or how do we determine that the
president has lost enough mental capacity that you know somebody
else to take over so is a very detailed like order ever been
so what has to happen if there’s like a challenge to the you know presidents ability to rule and
and things like that but basically this is set up with the 21st
amendment 26 the man is really kind of the last
big amendment that we’ve had passos’s ratified in 1971 and that this lowers the voting age in
the United States from 21 down to 18 so beginning in 1971 if you’re 18 or older you able to vote in general elections I
don’t to make myself sound too old here but this I was ratified the same here that I
was born so it’s been a while since we’ve had kind
of a significant amendments um we do have one more member to talk
about the 27th amendment I’m but that was kinda for formality
this is really kinda the last big amendment that’s been added to the
constitution the 27th amendment was ratified in 1992 and basically it it says that any
increase in pay for legislatures legislators must take place after an
election now this past just kinda really easily it was something that was actually
proposed by the founding fathers it never got past officially so they just
decided to go ahead and pass it um it just kinda like a common sense
type thing so it is an amendment but it’s an amendment
that really didn’t have a lot about position and just kind of happened under the
radar kind of so the last real significant amendment
would be the 26th but we do have the 27th amendment that
happened in 1992 so there you have the amendments number
eleven 327 I’m a lot of different things
accomplished with those different moments but again hopefully one of the main things
right across there was the difficulty with which it takes to actually get in a
memo to the Constitution same type your idea as far as the law
you know we don’t want people the just easily be able to add on
the Constitution because once you add something the
Constitution it’s very difficult to remove it so it took a long time to remove the
prohibition amendments and so wanna make it
difficult wanna make it something people talk about we want to make it you know a process so that we don’t end
up with just a littering up the constitution so if you have any questions about any
these amendments please let me know but that is amendments number eleven
through 27 hurt thanks

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