United States Constitution · Amendments · Bill of Rights · Complete Text + Audio
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United States Constitution · Amendments · Bill of Rights · Complete Text + Audio


The Constitution of the United
States of America September 17, 1787 Preamble We the People of the United States, in Order to
form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the
common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves
and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the
United States of America. Article I Section 1 All legislative Powers herein granted shall be
vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate
and House of Representatives. Section 2 The House of Representatives shall be composed
of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors
in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous
Branch of the State Legislature. No Person shall be a Representative who shall
not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State
in which he shall be chosen. Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned
among the several States which may be included within this Union, according
to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free
Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not
taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within
three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every
subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed
one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and
until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse
three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five,
New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten,
North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. When vacancies happen in the Representation from
any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election
to fill such Vacancies. The House of Representatives shall chuse their
Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment. Section 3 The Senate of the United States shall be composed
of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years;
and each Senator shall have one Vote. Immediately after they shall be assembled in
Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as
may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class
shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration
of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that
one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise,
during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary
Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall
then fill such Vacancies. No Person shall be a Senator who shall not
have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for
which he shall be chosen. The Vice President of the United States shall
be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and
also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise
the Office of President of the United States. The Senate shall have the sole
Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they
shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried,
the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence
of two thirds of the Members present. Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend
further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any
Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless
be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment,
according to Law. Section 4 The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections
for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature
thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except
as to the Places of chusing Senators. The Congress shall assemble at least once in
every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they
shall by Law appoint a different Day. Section 5 Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections,
Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum
to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized
to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties
as each House may provide. Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings,
punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence
of two thirds, expel a Member. Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings,
and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy;
and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at
the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal. Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall,
without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place
than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. Section 6 The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation
for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury
of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony
and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session
of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech
or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place. No Senator or Representative shall, during the
Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the
United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been
encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall
be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office. Section 7 All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in
the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments
as on other Bills. Every Bill which shall have passed the House
of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President
of the United States: If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it,
with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter
the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of
that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to
the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds
of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses
shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against
the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President
within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall
be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment
prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law. Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the
Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a
question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before
the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him,
shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the
Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. Section 8 The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect
Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence
and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall
be uniform throughout the United States; To borrow Money on the credit
of the United States; To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations,
and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization,
and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States; To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof,
and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting
the Securities and current Coin of the United States; To establish Post Offices and post Roads; To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts,
by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their
respective Writings and Discoveries; To constitute Tribunals inferior
to the supreme Court; To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed
on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations; To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal,
and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation
of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years; To provide and maintain a Navy; To make Rules for the Government and Regulation
of the land and naval Forces; To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute
the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining,
the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the
United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers,
and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline
prescribed by Congress; To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases
whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular
States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States,
and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of
the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards,
and other needful Buildings;—And To make all Laws which shall be necessary and
proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested
by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department
or Officer thereof. Section 9 The Migration or Importation of such Persons as
any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by
the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may
be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall
not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public
Safety may require it. No Bill of Attainder or ex post
facto Law shall be passed. No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be
laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before
directed to be taken. No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles
exported from any State. No Preference shall be given by any Regulation
of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels
bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another. No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury,
but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of
the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time. No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United
States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without
the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind
whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State. Section 10 No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance,
or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit;
make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder,
ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or
grant any Title of Nobility. No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress,
lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary
for executing its inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts,
laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United
States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress. No State shall, without the Consent of Congress,
lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement
or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded,
or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay. Article II Section 1 The executive power shall be vested in a President
of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four
years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term,
be elected, as follows: Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the
Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of
Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no
Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United
States, shall be appointed an elector. The electors shall meet in their respective
states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant
of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons
voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and
transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to
the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence
of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the
votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes
shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed;
and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number
of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of
them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the
list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall
be taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; A quorum for this
purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority
of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President,
the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who
have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President. The Congress may determine the time of choosing
the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the
same throughout the United States. No person except a natural born citizen, or
a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be
eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office
who shall not have attained to the age of thirty five years, and been fourteen Years
a resident within the United States. In case of the removal of the President from office,
or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide
for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice
President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly,
until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. The President shall, at stated times, receive
for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the
period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period
any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he
shall take the following oath or affirmation:–“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully
execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of
my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.” Section 2 The President shall be commander in chief of
the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when
called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in
writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject
relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves
and pardons for offenses against the United States, except
in cases of impeachment. He shall have power, by and with the advice and
consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present
concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall
appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and
all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided
for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the
appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the
courts of law, or in the heads of departments. The President shall have power to fill up all
vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall
expire at the end of their next session. Section 3 He shall from time to time give to the Congress
information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures
as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene
both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect
to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he
shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be
faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States. Section 4 The President, Vice President and all civil officers
of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction
of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. Article III Section 1 The judicial power of the United States, shall
be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from
time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior
courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive
for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during
their continuance in office. Section 2 The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in
law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties
made, or which shall be made, under their authority;–to all cases affecting ambassadors,
other public ministers and consuls;–to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;–to
controversies to which the United States shall be a party;–to controversies between two or
more states;–between a state and citizens of another state;–between citizens of different
states;–between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states,
and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public
ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the Supreme
Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme
Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions,
and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment,
shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes
shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall
be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed. Section 3 Treason against the United States, shall consist
only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving
them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless
on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. The Congress shall have power to declare the
punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture
except during the life of the person attainted. Article IV Section 1 Full faith and credit shall be given in each state
to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe
the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved,
and the effect thereof. Section 2 The citizens of each state shall be entitled
to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states. A person charged in any state with treason,
felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall
on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to
be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime. No person held to service or labor in one state,
under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law
or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered
up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. Section 3 New states may be admitted by the Congress into
this union; but no new states shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of
any other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts
of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned
as well as of the Congress. The Congress shall have power to dispose of
and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging
to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as
to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state. Section 4 The United States shall guarantee to every state
in this union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion;
and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot
be convened) against domestic violence. Article V The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses
shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application
of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention
for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes,
as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the
several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of
ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made
prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first
and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without
its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. Article VI All debts contracted and engagements entered into,
before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under
this Constitution, as under the Confederation. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States
which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made,
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the
judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any
State to the contrary notwithstanding. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned,
and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of
the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support
this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification
to any office or public trust under the United States. Article VII The ratification of the conventions of nine states,
shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the
states so ratifying the same. AMENDMENTS Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment
of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom
of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to
petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Amendment II A well regulated Militia, being necessary to
the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and
bear Arms, shall not be infringed. Amendment III No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered
in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in
a manner to be prescribed by law. Amendment IV The right of the people to be secure in their
persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not
be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place
to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Amendment V No person shall be held to answer for a capital,
or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except
in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service
in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject
for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy
of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be
a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due
process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without
just compensation. Amendment VI In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall
enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury
of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed,
which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed
of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him;
to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the
Assistance of Counsel for his defence. Amendment VII In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy
shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and
no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States,
than according to the rules of the common law. Amendment VIII Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive
fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Amendment IX The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain
rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Amendment X The powers not delegated to the United States
by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States
respectively, or to the people. Amendment XI The Judicial power of the United States shall
not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one
of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects
of any Foreign State. Amendment XII The Electors shall meet in their respective states,
and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall
not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots
the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President,
and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all
persons voted for as Vice-President and of the number of votes for each, which lists
they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the
United States, directed to the President of the Senate; The President of the Senate shall, in the presence
of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the
votes shall then be counted; The person having the greatest Number of votes
for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number
of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having
the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President,
the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall
be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this
purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority
of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall
not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the
fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in
the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as
Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number
of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers
on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall
consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole
number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to
the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President
of the United States. Amendment XIII Section 1 Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except
as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist
within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2 Congress shall have power to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation. Amendment XIV Section 1 All persons born or naturalized in the United States,
and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and
of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which
shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any
State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor
deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Section 2 Representatives shall be apportioned among the
several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons
in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for
the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives
in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof,
is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,
and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion,
or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which
the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens
twenty-one years of age in such State. Section 3 No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress,
or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under
the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member
of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature,
or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United
States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given
aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds
of each House, remove such disability. Section 4 The validity of the public debt of the United
States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties
for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State
shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion
against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all
such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. Section 5 The Congress shall have power to enforce, by
appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. Amendment VX Section 1 The right of citizens of the United States
to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race,
color, or previous condition of servitude. Section 2 The Congress shall have power to enforce
this article by appropriate legislation. Amendment XVI The Congress shall have power
to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived,
without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any
census or enumeration. Amendment XVII The Senate of the United States shall be composed
of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and
each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications
requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of
the State legislatures. When vacancies happen in the representation
of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of
election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the
executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election
as the legislature may direct. This amendment shall not be so construed as to
affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid
as part of the Constitution. Amendment XVIII Section 1 After one year from the ratification of this article
the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation
thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to
the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. Section 2 The Congress and the several States shall have
concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Section 3 This article shall be inoperative unless it
shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several
States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission
hereof to the States by the Congress. Amendment XIX The right of citizens of the United States
to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any
State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation. Amendment XX Section 1 The terms of the President and Vice President
shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at
noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this
article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. Section 2 The Congress shall assemble at least once in
every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they
shall by law appoint a different day. Section 3 If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the
term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President
elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before
the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have
failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President
shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a
President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then
act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person
shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified. Section 4 The Congress may by law provide for the case
of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President
whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of
the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever
the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. Section 5 Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th
day of October following the ratification of this article. Section 6 This article shall be inoperative unless it
shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths
of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission. Amendment XXI Section 1 The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution
of the United States is hereby repealed. Section 2 The transportation or importation into any State,
Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating
liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited. Section 3 This article shall be inoperative unless it
shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States,
as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission
hereof to the States by the Congress. Amendment XXII Section 1 No person shall be elected to the office of the
President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted
as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected
President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person
holding the office of President, when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall
not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President,
during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of
President or acting as President during the remainder of such term. Section 2 This article shall be inoperative unless it
shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths
of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to
the States by the Congress. Amendment XXIII Section 1 The District constituting the seat of Government
of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number
of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives
in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in
no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed
by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President
and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District
and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment. Section 2 The Congress shall have power to enforce
this article by appropriate legislation. Amendment XXIV Section 1 The right of citizens of the United States to
vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for
President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be
denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to
pay any poll tax or other tax. Section 2 The Congress shall have power to enforce
this article by appropriate legislation. Amendment XXV Section 1 In case of the removal of the President from
office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President. Section 2 Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of
the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office
upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress. Section 3 Whenever the President transmits to the President
pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written
declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until
he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall
be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President. Section 4 Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either
the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress
may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of
the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge
the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the
powers and duties of the office as Acting President. Thereafter, when the President transmits to
the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives
his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties
of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of
the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit
within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of
Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge
the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling
within forty eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty one days after
receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty
one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two thirds vote of
both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his
office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President;
otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office. Amendment XXVI Section 1 The right of citizens of the United States,
who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the
United States or by any State on account of age. Section 2 The Congress shall have power to enforce
this article by appropriate legislation. Amendment XXVII No law, varying the compensation for the services
of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives
shall have intervened. End of the Constitution of the
United States of America.

100 Comments

  • mountain man

    THE CONSTITUTION FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, is what it should read! wrote about ten years before THE CONSTITUTION of THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

  • Jack Smith

    The 106 muppets who voted this glorious document down deserve to live in a country where their humanity is an obstacle in the way of powerful and malign interests.

  • Carbonman

    And yet you do not see any of these behaviors of police or government put all of them in jail no police off the streets ill never be privileged by another human being get off our lifes

  • RDRAFF1

    Before I vote! The book!

    Before I vote. Shit gotta start making sense.
    Starting with work! Jobs! Government!

    A work day should be 5 hours a day.
    Anything more should be over time.

    Minimum wage should be the cost of a good healthy meal.
    It takes a lot of energy to work. Work equals death and health problems. Ask men!

    Especially jobs where you stand all day for no damn reason other than the managers and supervisors are idiots. Some of the people standing are too. If I'm standing all day as a security guard and somebody steals something I'm not chasing after them or fighting with them because they might get the upper hand if I'm tired, mistreated and physically stressed and fatigued from standing or not resting properly. My health is my priority and my body is my temple. Either feed me and keep me fit enough to do my job with rest and comfort or pay good money so I can work and remain healthy.
    I AIN'T NO DAMN SLAVE!

    Food equals energy.
    Food is very expensive these days.
    $30 for a good healthy meal in this day and time and people who work, especially hard work under stressful conditions, (not no office job punching keys and looking pretty), I mean real back breaking hard work, dealing with stress or wicked, hateful or racist people. To remain healthy one gotta eat 5 times a day. $30 an hour should be the minimum wage.

    8 hours is alot of hours to work. Especially if you have a real job that is hard and back breaking: demolition, Dish washer, maintenance man, janitor, transit worker, door man, security, military enlisted. Private companies paid their pals $100 and hour to do private security in Afghanistan. Many weren't even qualified or ex military. Stuff like this has to also stop. People getting into positions their not fit or qualified for and being paid tons of money.

    If the commute to work is more than 45 mins I should get paid for the hour. I woke up out of bed to get their. If it wasn't for government and their F'd up un equal system I would still be in bed.
    If I work nights I should get night premiums. If I work the morning shift I should get a mandatory hour and a half for lunch. If I have a job where I have to deal with more than 20 people I should have a partner and holida pay, time and a half over time and yearly bonuses should be mandatory.

    If I do the job of two people I should be paid double. The more that is required of me is the more I should be paid.

    Who wants to wake up early in the morning and fight with traffic or commute to somewhere they hate to be and gotta be, because we keep voting for assholes who sell us pipe dreams and outright lie to our faces and laugh behind our backs while they call us peasants in a slick way to our faces and live high off the hog while asking poor and already resilient people to be resilient and more cooperative.

    Who wants to be at a job where some unqualified, inexperienced, lost mother lover is talking down to you as if a degree and position makes them better than you. Or the fact that you chose to live your live and not dedicate your time to learning how to be an asshole to people makes you any less intelligent.

    Remember work stress, pressure and problems equals death. If you're going to allow the boss to kill you, you should atleast be paid something for your life!

    Before I vote!
    Free healthcare for everyone.
    Free college for everyone. College was free until the greedy people we voted for got with the banks and change that. Now our national deficit has increased a million times since the nation started charging for college.

    All past college debt should be forgiven. All weed offender should be released from prison and records thrown out an they should be compensated. How the F do you ruin a life because of weed and that is acceptable? Un f'ing acceptable. Totally unsatisfactory!

    The banks, the auto industies and the homosexual agenda organizations along with the Clintons and the bushes and god knows who else got a bail outs. Why shouldn't the (hard working, god fearing, over taxed American who is kind hearted and old fashioned or just normal), get one?

    Why companies and organizations get bailouts but the people suffering, selling drugs to survive, prostituting to pay off college, or going to jail for trying to pay for college or just to pay the ridiculous rent or eat because food is life or people forced to do wicked things on the job just to keep a job, why these folks can't get a bail out?

    The people still suffering. Crime and corruption is still on the rise. The quality of life in America is going to shit. People who speak perfect English and recieved and American education or in shelters, homeless or in jail while folks come here from other counties are getting jobs with hands on experience America won't teach it's youths. We get out dated text books at a high cost and over taxed and high tuition for skills we can't use.

    Shouldn't it be getting better after all the oil and crap we stole and kill for?
    Is this what we call living? Waking up to a new reason to be overly charged everyday for worse. Looking forward to a new bill, tax, higher rent, utilities cost increase or extra charge for stuff that hasn't been improved or enhanced, but got smaller or more lacking in quality.
    How greedy can these animals who who are setting these market prices be.
    Government is criminal! Government is lethal and deadly to humans!

    The people is due a bail out just like the banks that print money got one.
    Don't you see. The banks that print and trade money among each other got a bail out.

    All citizens should have their college debt forgiven, all whom are jailed for marijuana violations should be released and their records should be scrubbed clean.
    I also have to see a politicians standing up for men's right to work and be productive and not be harrassed by the IRS, the government or the justice system or women.

    All foriegn influence over or government must be dealt with immediately.
    All who honor foreign policies and nations and people before honoring Americans must be charged with treason and should be immediately removed from office and jailed.

    Many simple minded black people and white people are gonna do what the simple minded do. Which is to get brain washed by talking points and fall in line with the agenda of government which is to kill you or have you kill yourself while the get paid and collect revenue and taxes off of our misery. We all know that centuries of us being divided and sitting on the sidelines is what has led to this once great nation going to the kock heads.

    If you want my vote, these are my demands. If I don't see any candidate with an America first agenda I am not voting for your yellow belly, low life, rotten shithead, butt crack licking, crack smokin, slime bag ass.

    Our only answer to government is to have a King. A real King. A king for the people of the people! Sela!
    I denounced government and boarders. May the curse of government and their wicked deed pass my head and follow those who love the wickedness promoted and practiced by a wicked government!
    SELA!
    https://store.cdbaby.com/cd/fitzieniceness12

  • Robert Barber

    I see we have 109 thumbs down! Must be 109 socialists! 🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸

  • rosekiller123

    Those that put a Thumbs down! F yourselves! Go somewhere you belong, because it’s not in a sovereign USA! Bitches in heat!

  • John Forgette Jr

    When the law makers makes laws that are in conflict with the constitution those law makers are criminals and lawless

  • Munki Munki

    So… Squad need to go back to school!!! They violated many of the amendments and sections thereof… !!! They are NOT qualified to represent America and Americans… so are many DEMS!!!

    This should be a mandatory requirement for all who are running for the senate and congress!!! As well as any public offices!!!

  • Paulie Harrow

    Only 111 ASSHOLES. It's a slow week for the Demon O crats.
    Left sided Communists and any other affiliation of Brain mush.

  • Paulie Harrow

    I SINCERELY THANK the person who posted our Forefathers Decleration of FREEDOM including the Amendments signed and agreed upon by CIVIL , INTELLIGENT MEN. .👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👍
    I borrowed other intelligent hands !!!

  • Paulie Harrow

    For ANY person voted into ANY position of governmental status it NEEDS to be Mandatory to read this and become familiar with it… IT IS OUR LAW….!!!!!!
    NO different perceptions of it exist.!!!

  • Todd Winter

    WRONG CONSTITUTION YOU NITWITS..
    Orig Constitution: The Constitution "for"

    Rewritten altered Corporate Constitution: The Constitution "of"

    Major difference. You people make me sick!! You're either idiots or decieving people..
    Why does a N Mn logger know this but you deskjockeys do not???
    I wouldn't suspect you all cut down 100trees a day.. I also wouldn't suspect I'd have to educate you on your chosen topic!!!
    Get your shit together please..
    God be with you.peace

  • Rebecca Blankenship

    Yes everytime I hear a politician refer to our country as a democracy it makes my skin crawl that they dont know the difference between a democracy and a republic

  • Derby Jack The Blues Man

    Democrats have made themselves controllers not servants to the Republic and have defiled the Constitution and bill of rights! They should all be impeached!

  • Ranaldo Bobsled

    The Constitution of the United States of America is irrelevant for the duration of the Trump tenure. Just ask Trump.

  • James Mitchell

    IT. DOES. NOT. APPLY TO AFRCAN. AMERICANS NEVER. HAS NEVER. WILL. ITS AN ILLUSION. THEY. SHOULD NOT ENGAGE. IN ANYTHING THAT DEFENDS. IT. IE. POLICE. AND MILITARY.

  • Richard Hudak

    IM A DAV IN A WHEELCHAIR AND CANT WALK N SOME ONE IN WASHINGTON D C TELL ME WHY THE VA WILL PUNISH A VETERAN AN VIOLATE HIS CIVIL RIGHTS DR DIANE JOHNSON VIOLATED MY LEGAL N CIVIL RIGHTS AT THE CLEVELAND V A HOSPITAL SHES A NARCISSIST N HATES VETERANS N I HAVE RECORDS TO PROVE IT PLEASE HELP ME GET JUSTICE BEFORE I DIE CALL ME 330 409 5780

  • J J

    All American Politicians, to join military, and workers of Any Government should read this before they work for "We the People" AND Cant Not create private business while working in these positions. Like getting contract with WE THE PEOPLE!!!
    Right now our country is doomed, wake up America!!!! The Washington DC is Not working for us.

  • imdahG

    It's every American citizen's duty to uphold and defend the US Constitution and America from all threats domestic and foreign… America is an occupied nation. The occupation is making its move on both the 1st and 2nd Amendments. Be Vigilant America.. They are using their media propaganda and unconstitutional laws to manipulate Americans into submitting to their authoritarian regime. RESIST!

  • Joaquin Nolasco

    Why the United States people call themselves Americans?.. America sounds more Spanish than English ,..get an English name and leave America to Americanos..

  • Kenn Ashley

    It was called "the Constitution for the United States of America"
    not CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

  • Mark Jones

    The constitution for the United States of America is the original. The Constitution of the United States is a fiction a replacement which makes you a fictitious bankrupt corporation.

  • James Day

    I DON'T WORRY ABOUT THE THUMBS DOWN. YOU WILL ALL KILL YOURSELVES WHEN DONALD TRUMP IS REELECTED. YOU WON'T BE ABLE TO LIVE THROUGH 4 MORE YRS. OF SENSIBLE LEADERSHIP. ON THE OTHER HAND THERE WILL BE ALL OUT WAR AGAINST YOU IF ANYTHING HAPPENS TO PREVENT HIS ELECTION.

  • Gerdie Albers

    According to this text…you ARE NOT the UNITED STATES of AMERICA WHICH is a corporation…!! AMERICA thus has no constitution nor a government…??? THE ZIONISTS RULE THE UNITED STATES UNDER THE UNITED KINGDOM…SINCE AFTER THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE THERE WAS NEVER A PEACETREATY SIGNED…!! Have I UNDERSTOOD that right ??

  • D Chase

    There’s a huge number of this Congress guilty of breaching of peace! Attempting to start a civil war amongst their own people while constantly accusing citizens of white supremacy, accusations of racism, and attacks on voters they are in disagreement with! Breaching of peace is a constitutional clause of which many be charged and should be charged!

  • Step Tart

    Our constitution was written by free white men for free white men only in fact women don't even have Constitutional rights and our first Congress wrote a declaration that America be colonized by free white men only and not to many people know this but Lincoln was in the process of shipping blacks back until he got shot.

  • Joel Drotts

    All cops and Judges should be made to listen to this every morning before work on a mandatory basis. What gets me is just how different things are, from how they are supposed to be. If you just read or even listen to the Constitution it becomes super clear that one of the first and most important jobs of the government is to protect the rights of the people. The other thing that always becomes super clear to me is according to the Constitution that it is supposed to be the Legislature who is supposed to be running the government, and the President is supposed to go "execute" the directions or desires of the legislature. Obviously, over the years the Office of President gained a lot more power than I believe originally was supposed to be vested in that Office. One such point is there is actually no mention of "Executive Orders" in the Constitution, also there is no mention of "Line-item veto" only a "Veto." Moreover, all of the alphabet soup Federal Policing Agencies are not allowed as there is no Federal Policing Power. So, how does that work?

  • Mike M

    Notice how it Says we the people not we the government. We the people hold the power under the constitution under constitutional law and we need to show them who they're bosses are and who pays them peaces of shit in Congress and ever public office in America . Don't you think we the people !!!!!!!!!

  • hunter97850g

    The Law of The Land! WE The People Adhere To! NoW Gov!⛓🏛⛓😤😤😤♨️♨️♨️♨️⚖⚖⚖⚖⚖🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸

  • Diana Ritchie

    Thank you for doing this, I been sayn it's a republic not democracy tbey keep pushing democracy guess cuz they r democrats 🤔

  • Tammy Dalton

    😎😎 and to be let known the laws made by senators and governors and presidents 4 the citizens of America and Americans, citizens approval!!!. 😎😎.

  • Daniel Andre

    RIP it up the owners of this country dont want you to have these rights. Our own government grew a cell within it, and that cell grew bigger after time, so big, it is non reversible. And that cell forces agendas from abroad. Forget what our forefathers put together for us, unless you are ready to pick up your arms and fire back. If anyone thinks we are still at a stage of fighting evil peacefully, you are mistaken. What needs to happen is the elite need to be expelled. Taken out. Swiftly. Secret organizations need to form, a war needs to be fought, by every man, woman n child of this nation. Because as it stands right now, America is already gone…

  • Angelo B Koljenovic

    We do now one thing to be manipulated by the politicians ho have sofar broken very Law of this Country and shod be prosecuted.

  • Important Issues

    Mr. Napolitano…why keep perpetuating thee idea that we have a two party system…when in fact there be only one party, the nazi party…holding onto your job at fox really this important…tell thee public how thee constitution were suspended in 1933, thee fact that we are under marshall law, and have no rights or freedoms, just privileges that can be taken away at any moment at thee whim of thee wicked who are in control…thee truth will set you free

  • Elvis Johnson

    Every one in Congress, Senate and representive needs To read the Constitution. I doubt many have. It is Beautifully written, it's a shame no one goes by it, except the poor. Congress and past Pres' have twisted it To the way they want. It plainly says "We the People have the Power. It's used To get what the congress and senate want, like defending illegals over Citizen. What à disgrace!

  • Corno di Bassetto

    There is a myth among libertarians, that our nation was formed to protect the individual first, a patent absurdity.

    As this Preamble demonstrates, the Union enables a prosperious, safe, and secure individual. On this basis, let us analyze this text phrase by phrase.

    1. "We the People"
    Note, despite all claims by libertarians or pseudo-libertarians that persons create a government, hence can dissolve a govt (the insurrectionist theory), the reverse is true. Only "the People" in their majority capacity can form a political compact.

    Locke, who had great influence over our Founders, made it clear that once a social compact is formed no individual can ever break it again, even though individuals, of course, formed the majority that created the compact. Only "the People" in their majority status can dissolve the compact.

    This puts to rest the insurrectionist theory of government, which even the Heller court subscribed to, inserting the word "tyranny" in our Constitution. But "tyranny" in a republican govt is a contradiction in terms. At that point it is no longer a democratic republic and the compact will cease to exist.

    2. "of the United States"
    This is one of the most overlooked phrases in the unamended Constitution, yet so important to understand the antifederalist demand for a Bill of Rights and, indeed, to understand the Bill of Rights itself.

    The antifederalists who believed in state sovereignty, or, more precisely, the principle of dual sovereignty (confederation of co-sovereign states vs. national consolidation) believed in dual citizenship, both of the State and of the United States. Until modern times, when courts pretended to "incorporate" the Bill of Rights, this principle was taken for granted. Thus when one reads judicial opinions up to modern times, one must be able to distinguish between reference to the United States (the nation) and the State.

    It was precisely to make this distinction clear, and, indeed, Constitutionally protected, that the Bill of Rights was proselytized and later ratified.

    3. "to form a more perfect union"
    Note that nowhere in the entire Preamble is there any mention of the individual. The Union was formed for the sake of the Unioin and the People, not for the sake of its individuals. It doesn't say "to form a more perfect citizen," but "to form a more perfect union."

    4. "establish justice"
    Note the distinction between executing justice and establishing justice. They are not the same. Individuals execute justice, which may in fact be unjust, since not established under law. Vigilante justice is an example of executing justice.

    5. "insure domestic tranquility"
    This is a sorely overlooked part of our Constitution, along with Jefferson's "best able to secure our safety and happiness" from the Declaration.

    A liberty that undermines the domestic tranquility is not liberty at all, but license, as the drunk printer in "The Man Who Shot Liberty Valence" puns on Liberty's name after Liberty (the bad guy) has destroyed the printing press, representing freedom of speech: "Liberty Valence taking liberties with the liberty of the press." Thus his name is ironic. Liberty does not represent liberty at all, but license.

    6. "provide for the common defense"
    This is one of the key phrases in the entire gun debate. The absurd argument is made by gun rights advocates that that phrase was omitted from the Second Amdt in order to ensure an individual right to a gun, not merely "for the common defense."

    That argument cannot be sustained. The antifederalists had the phrase deleted on the principle of state sovereignty. They feared that "common defense" might Constitutionally commit the state militias to the national defense. But the states wanted the militias solely for state defense, apart from national emergencies when it would be under federal authority.

    Admittedly, the modern distinction is lost, since no one seriously thinks a state can rebel against the national government anymore. The Civil War proved that, as did President Kennedy's federalization of George Wallace's National Guard, which terminated Governor Wallace's command of his state militia.

    7. "promote the general welfare"
    Yet another emphasis on the "general" over the "individual."

    8. "secure the blessings of liberty"
    Note, the federalists were not concerned with liberty as an end in itself, but with the "blessings" of liberty. A liberty to destroy oneself or others is not liberty at all, as John Ford's great film showed, but license, pointedly destroying another liberty, the liberty of the press.

    9. "ourselves and our posterity"
    Note both the plural construction ("ourselves," not himself or herself) as well as "our posterity." The government must laws and social policies for long-term or generational prosperity.

    10. "do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."

    As if this has not been plain enough, notice that the Constitution was established NOT FOR THE INDIVIDUAL CITIZEN, but for the United States of America. The political logic is that though the individual existentially preceded the nation's compact, it is the nation's compact that empowers the individual as a citizen. Thus without the nation, the citizen no longer exists, and reverts back to being a mere individual in the state of Nature; where, as Thomas Hobbes famously wrote, "the life of man is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."

  • Hector Cervantes

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  • blob assimilate

    forward this to the judge that said,,,corportions are people to,,giving the false authority to buy and influence politicians crony lawyers and therefor judges that are put in place in advance by said bought politicians,etc so on and so forth…last chance….

  • Joe Wilson

    To bad that there are people who are refusing the Constitution and the freedom of the people who shall have control over the government .

  • Fire X Flame

    THIS IS WHAT WE MUST RETURN TO AND THAT IS WHAT WE ARE FIGHTING FOR. RULES AND LAWS SHOULD ONLY BE MADE FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL THE PEOPLE OF THE USA. A LAW SHOULD BE WRIT AND MADE TO QUIT ALL LOBBYING AND MAKE IT ILLEGAL FOR ALL FEDERAL AND STATE GOVERNMENT. THIS HAS BEEN OUR DOWNFALL AND WILL CONTINUE UNTIL WE CEASE AND DESIST FROM ANY AND ALL LOBBYING….>

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  • Richard Naleway

    18 U.S. Code § 242. Deprivation of rights under color of law
    U.S. Code
    Notes
    prev | next
    Whoever, under color of any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom, willfully subjects any person in any State, Territory, Commonwealth, Possession, or District to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States, or to different punishments, pains, or penalties, on account of such person being an alien, or by reason of his color, or race, than are prescribed for the punishment of citizens, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and if bodily injury results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include the use, attempted use, or threatened use of a dangerous weapon, explosives, or fire, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if death results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned for any term of years or for life, or both, or may be sentenced to death.

  • Robert Steiner

    this not accurate, not the original constitution. One of the changes that was made from the original is the 13th Ammendment which should read as follows: ORIGINAL THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT
    1-B:1 Original Thirteenth Amendment. The following shall be recognized as the original Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution:

    Article XIII

    If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or retain any title of nobility or honor, or shall, without the consent of Congress, accept and retain any present, pension, office or emolument of any kind whatever, from any Emperor, King, Prince or foreign power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the United States, and shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit under them or either of them.

    If there is a rebuttal to this, before you do that, I suggest you do a bit of research and you will find the above. The 13th ammendment was literally changed around 1850 time frame and was never ratified but replaced and allowed to remain, why? you ask. because most of the members of congress are lawyers and as a lawyer they have to take the bar. the Bar is the British Activity Registery, a British organization. by doing this a lawyer, under the original constitution is not able to serve in public office. So, that makes all laws passed since 1850s illegal and non binding which means all 3 letter agencies are illegal. Now you begin to see why congress refuses to address this issue.

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