What are Natural Disasters and the Hazards associated with them
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What are Natural Disasters and the Hazards associated with them

Introduction Music Good morning again! Good morning Students “Good morning Sir.” Little life!
We need lot of life! Okay So now coming to our question We aksed “What is disaster?” We understand that disaster need not mean only loss of life. Agreed? Need not be only loss of life There is something bigger than loss of life and disasterous actually being talked about. Again this In the previous class we told that there are
certain cases like Fukushima reactor’s fallout. The natural part was only Tsunami, but the part where we have a fallout is man made.
Right? So there are two sides of the coin, Which of that is correct?
or Which of that is worse? we don’t really know. So when I am talking about and we are talking about natural disaster Please don’t take only natural disaster in terms of
what the weather does to us? May be we have done something
to aggrevate the situation. So these are the two things which we are going to focus upon in this course. So today we are going to see that there are certain skills which are required for
identifying a disaster. So may be we were thinking Is it because of the temperature? Atmospheric pressure? and probably some other things like relative humidity and other things which caused the disaster or you know what else should we see? When we are going to look for a for the perfect recipe for a disaster. So, what are the thing that make a disaster? One of the things which accentuate a disaster is Suppose there is an earthquake and earthquake is occuring in the forest. In the forest,
I am talking about a plain forest. Maybe something like your
Amazon Rain forest. What is going to be the impact of
such an earthquake? The trees are going to shake, some of the trees may fall down, but, thats about it. Had it been in a thunderstorm? may be the same tree
could have fallen down. but thats about mostly
what is going to happen. However, suppose,
if you’re going to have an earthquake probably in a very crowded city. May be in Bombay? May be what we had in in Gujarat in 2011. That’s the Bhuj earthquake. Suppose you are looking at these there is a difference between the way the impact has… What will be the impact? I am going to now just put a few questions to you about What is this thing called Hazard? What is Hazard? What is Risk? These are two words which are coming around which we come across So, what is a Hazard? What is Risk? Anybody? What could be Hazard? Anyway I will take that we will have a look at What I have to define Hazard as So we are going to see that Hazards are things which are going to cause harm to people. Hazards cause harm to people. Now, when I am talking about Hazard, I am classifying it into 3 NATURAL HAZARD there are some MAN MADE HAZARDS, there is a HYBRID HAZARD. Like…Fukushima’s Impact. Fukushima was not purely natural, neither can we say that it was only man made or something in between both of them that caused it. Ok Now, suppose you say man made there is something, a component where it is 100% done because of the action of people. Okay We are specifically looking at ‘Natural Hazards’. We will classify Natural Hazards into 3 The Hazards which are due to ‘Geological Nature’ The other one will be due to ‘Hydrological’ being ‘Hydrological’ in nature and the third one will be due to ‘Meteorological’ or based on the
weather conditions that we classify it as a Hazard. Okay…. So Hazard has a potential to cause harm. Okay to the individual So this individual,
it can be you, it can be me it can be any other person. okay Now, If suppose I am going to study about the ‘Geological’ aspect of a Hazard I have to understand – What Geology is? Geology is the study of the earth the crust whatever makes up the earth. Certain underlined conditions are recipes for disasters. Suppose you are having
a certain kind of geological formation, then, some of the Hazards some of the agencies that can cause harm are ready to happen. Simple thing! We know that the Earth is made up of
‘Tectonic Plates’ I know that this would have been
learnt in fourth standard. Right? … It’s way back. Right? These plates are said to moving towards or moving away from each other. and in India, the Himalayan, in the Himalayas what’s happening is, our Indian plate is moving towards the rest of Asia. and this is causing a lot of stress to be created. Assume that it’s a pen spring. You are keeping it under table. Assume the same pen spring is being pushed down and then suddenly releasing it. What is happening in the 2 cases? The first case, What is happening to the pen spring? It stays in Position. The pen spring stays in it’s position. Second time, I am compressing the spring. And when I am suddenly releasing it, it is able to rebound. Right? … Now…. This is what happens to the plates. The rocks are continuosly getting pressed, and when it is getting released, Enormous energy is getting released at a…. you know like instantaneously. See, suppose you got a pen spring you know you have seen the spring on the railway coaches. So, you can imagine pressing spring like, the pen spring by say 10 milimeters and that way 10 milimeters Which is going to release more energy? Automatically you will say the one of the train. Just imagine the rock is getting
compressed and it is releasing. So that is why, whenever there is one kind of Geological formation where there is a
Hazard of Earthquake. So like this there are many others,
which we will see in the course of this paper. What is that is going to cause this Hazard? Second one is Hydrological in nature and the third one ofcourse so you need to understand some of the things which are some of the science behind
Hydrology and Metereology. so that we will come to all of that when we come to that particular
portion of the study. So these are some of the
Geological impacts. So suppose we talk about landslide its a Geological Hazard. Which is going to cause harm to people. So, What would cause landslide? What will cause ‘Volcanic Eruptions’? What is going to cause ‘Avalanche’? and What is going to cause a ‘Sink Hole’? These are some of the things which we will probably study and try to interpret and see the potential that it becomes a Hazard. Right? So one of the things which most of us see is people are working on predicting when an earthquake is likely to happen. Where the storm is likely to make windfall or
its going to strike the land. Whether its going to dissapate its energy or whether the energy is going
to be the same. when it enters the place. So another very interesting thing is
‘Sink Holes’ where due to some Geological formation the earth is not able to sustain the load
which is put on top of it. So it might be able to hold on for
a very long time but suddenly whatever is the vicinity of the sink hole, will just go into the earth. So these are some of the Geological aspects these are very common in India. Floods is very common in India. Tsumani is Tsunami happened in
the coast of Tamil Nadu in the year
2000 Sorry
Student “2004” 2004 but unfortunately 2004 is almost 15 years ago So 15 years ago this phenomenon took place. and because of that problem it is still fresh
in the minds of us But in certain countries like Japan and places where the where you know the Tsumanis are common people take precautions against it. and one more very important thing what I wanted to put here across is Earthquakes are cause of Tsumanis. Especially earthquakes which happened under the sea bed. Earthquakes under the sea bed are are causes of Tsunamis This unique eruption is a very
interesting thing. Which I don’t know,
How many of you heard of this? Watched this series called ‘Scorpion’. So, In Scorpion, the leader of the group, identifies the perfect conditions for a ‘Liminic Eruption’. What is this ‘Liminic Eruption’? Carbon di-oxide gets trapped under the surface of the water. and under when the condition is right for
a Liminic Eruption the whole lake explodes. The whole lake explodes. The Carbon di-oxide is made is just coming out of the What you call
out of the lake and it can suffocate the people… animals… whatever is in the vicinity of the Cloud ‘Carbon di-oxide Cloud’
which moves Amazing right? So, the thing about Scorpion is Scorpion is a group of brilliant people So he uses science to defeat it okay I’ll tell you which is the episode It’s on Amazon Prime So, if you are on Amazon Prime
probably you can watch it. So, that’s where I watched it. so…. you will find that there are so this was very interesting kind of disaster which I came across. and the way the plot of the story was done to defeat it was also equally interesting. Okay So, if you look at disasters what I really feel is that If you are able to apply all the
engineering principles which we learnt probably we will be in a
very good position to overcome those disasters. okay… so… How we react is mainly from our experience and the other thing from our knowledge. So let us see how much knowledge
we can gain? and experience need not be the where you be the first person to witness Today I don’t know how many of you have watched
YouTube videos on people chasing Tornados They go behind a Tornado with a camera so you see Whatever they experienced is available to us
almost in first hand. So if you are in position to just understand
how various thing work our experience level should also
correspondingly go up. So again, again, the ‘Metereological Disasters’ ‘Thundserstorms ‘Cyclones’ Now currently we are having a
‘Thunderstorm’ okay So, we don’t know,
what is the imapct of it? And yeah…I have a question for you
a little while from now When it comes to it,
we will have a look at it. Then there are ‘Ice Storms’ and ‘Blizzards’ okay but very common we have ‘Heat Wave’ and ‘Cold Wave’ conditions
happening in specially North India. Right Many of you who come from the North, in Delhi you had heat wave conditions in the summer and also you have this cold wave conditions. Both of which cause lot of damage to life. May be not only human life, animals also suffer because of
these conditions. Ofcousre, then there are
Droughts and Tornados. Now I am coming to this question. Are ‘Hazards’ and ‘Risk’ the same? How many of you say
‘Hazards’ are the same as ‘Risk’? ‘Hazards’ and ‘Risk’ are they the same? Because if you are saying NO, I’ll ask you to say WHY? Can we take a minute? to probably see, What is ‘Hazard’ and
What is ‘Risk? Okay… so that you can correct me,
if I am wrong. When we come to it. Open your mobile please I expect you to have a look at this question and give me the answer. Right Any volunteers? No volunteers!
Yeah okay… please…. Talking to a student,
“It’s okay. You can tell. No Problem.” What’s a ‘Hazard’?
What’s a ‘Risk’? Good Yes, yes please tell me Student answering
” Sir, Hazard is something which will cause harm” It is sure that it is going to cause harm. JSP “Okay”
Student “Risk is a chance. It’s like probabilty.” JSP “Probabilty that it causes….”
Student “It can cause harm.” JSP “… harm.”” Student “High or low.”
JSP “High or low.” JSP ” See…” …. I am taking a knife… okay… and if suppose I am going to give it to my son whose is doing his first standard. What is the What happens to the ‘Hazard’? See ‘Hazard’ is the knife. okay Now what happens to the risk? Student “Risk increases.” JSP “Risk increases. Why?” The probabilty that this child is going to do mischiefs much higher. So this is what we are trying to say about
‘Hazard ‘ and ‘Harm’ He is perfectly right in my view Is there any other view against it?
or you know which you can contribute? That is going to be appreciated. see One of the major things which
we do right here is We see that there is a potential
to cause harm. There is a potential to cause harm.
Okay. We are going to see also the other thing where there is a probability.
As he put it. Probabilty to get into trouble because of that thing which is going to cause harm
is going to be seen. So hazard,
We cannot avoid a hazard. Anything can be a hazard. This floor can be a hazard if just a little water is spilled on it. Right? The Hazard is you can slip and fall on this floor
on a good day The risk increases when there is water. Okay So, we are going to see How we can mitigate, probably a risk. So, unless you know what is the Hazard you are not going to be in a position to mitigate it or probably even manage it. So…Now, let us see a few things. So, suppose there are many things,
and I am specifically picking out knife. A knife can cause cuts. When did the probabilty increase
that it can cause harm? When the knife is probably bigger,
when the knife is probably sharper. when the handle is not proper probably the risk increases. So on and so forth we can identify the various risks
which are provided. Now I am going to ask you What are the risks or
What are the things that can cause harm…. to a person when there is a flood? There is a flood, what are the things that can increase
the chance of harm? A student replying to the question Okay, see there is VIT lake How many of you are in final years and third years third years and final years Have you seen flooding in this area
opposite of food court? In the phase of heavy rain? see On certain nights, people were coming from the
construction site, the found that they were knee deep
in water on this road. What was the problem? All the water from in and around VIT comes towards this lake and if the lake is too full water comes in. Right? Now just…. The simple solution, there is a sluice valve which you open and if you open it at the wrong time that is you know
when the water is already flooded and when you open the rate at which the water dispatches
is too high It will cause a lot of damage to the
people downstream So what should we do As the water level rises,
we should open the sluice. So, this means the hazard is the same. The hazard of drowning
is still the same. But it’s reduced
when you manage it properly okay.. see… In many of the countries where what you call is the they have very strict rules about
how you do the construction For example,
the pipes are all suspended on slings. okay So that the pipe can move with
the earthquake and not be fractured. So things like this, reduce the risk that a That the damge is going to be out of
proportion sacles. okay So you can just see that there
are many more So basically there are ‘Biological Hazards’ okay there are ‘Chemical Hazards’ and ‘Ergonomic Hazards’ are also there where you kind of damage yourself by sitting on bad furniture,
for extended period of time. bad posture so on and so forth There’s Physical Psychosocial and also there is a ‘Safety’ issue. See, one of the main things is ‘Behaviour’ is also a hazard. Bullying teasing okay so and so forth They can cause a lot of harm. For example you see everywhere UGC has mandated that anti-ragging poster are put up everywhere. So this is because, we want to create a safer workspace.
Okay. We are reducing a hazard. Now I am going to one of the Acts of India Okay…. So…. This a DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT OF INIDA and this is what defines a ‘Disaster’ as Can you guys see it when you are
sitting in the last row? Can you see this?
Are you able to read it? Okay,
I want you to read it. Try to understand. What is there in this particular thing?
Okay. Ending music.

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