What Was the Enlightenment?
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What Was the Enlightenment?


Modern science, medicine, political freedom,
the market economy—all of them, we’re told, are the result of a sort of miracle
that took place 250 years ago. That miracle is called the Enlightenment,
a moment in history when philosophers suddenly overthrew religious dogma and tradition and
replaced it with human reason. Harvard professor Steven Pinker puts it this
way: “Progress is a gift of the ideals of the Enlightenment.” There’s just one problem with this claim. It isn’t really true. Consider the U.S. Constitution, which is frequently
said to be a product of Enlightenment thought. But you only need to read about English common
law—which Alexander Hamilton and James Madison certainly did—to see that this isn’t so. Already in the 15th-century, the English jurist
John Fortescue elaborated the theory of “checks and balances,” due process, and the role
of private property in securing individual freedom and economic prosperity. Similarly, the U.S. Bill of Rights has its
sources in English common law of the 1600s. Or consider modern science and medicine. Long before the Enlightenment, tradition-bound
English kings sponsored path-breaking scientific institutions such as the Royal College of
Physicians, founded in 1518, and the Royal Society of London, founded in 1660. The truth is that statesmen and philosophers,
especially in England and the Netherlands, articulated the principles of free government
centuries before America was founded. So why give the Enlightenment all the credit? Apparently because it doesn’t look good
to admit that the best and most important parts of modernity were given to us by individuals
who nearly all held conservative religious and political beliefs. The claim that all good things come from the
Enlightenment is most closely associated with the late-18th-century German philosopher,
Immanuel Kant. For Kant, reason is universal, infallible,
and independent of experience. His extraordinarily dogmatic philosophy insisted
that there can be only one correct answer to every question in science, morality and
politics. And that to reach the one correct answer,
mankind had to free itself from the chains of the past—that is, from history, tradition
and experience. But this Enlightenment view is not only wrong,
it’s dangerous. Human reason, when cut loose from the constraints
imposed by history, tradition and experience, produces a lot of crazy notions. The abstract Enlightenment philosophy of Jean
Jacques Rousseau is a good example. It quickly pulled down the French state, leading
to the French Revolution, the Reign of Terror, and the Napoleonic Wars. Millions died as Napoleon’s armies sought
to rebuild every government in Europe in light of the one correct political theory he believed
was permitted by Enlightenment philosophy. Today’s cheerleaders for the Enlightenment
tend to skip this part of the story. They also pass over the fact that the father
of communism, Karl Marx, saw himself as promoting universal reason as well. His new “science” of economics ended up
killing tens of millions of people in the 20th century. So did the supposedly scientific race theories
of the Nazis. The greatest catastrophes of modernity were
engineered by individuals who claimed to be exercising reason. In contrast, most of the progress we’ve
made comes from conservative traditions openly skeptical of human reason. The Enlightenment’s critics, including John
Selden, David Hume, Adam Smith, and Edmund Burke, emphasized
the unreliability of “abstract reasoning” and urged us to stick close to custom, history,
and experience in all things. Which brings us to the heart of what’s wrong
with today’s idolization of the Enlightenment. Its leading figures were not skeptics open
to what history and experience might teach us. Their aim was to create their own system of
supposedly infallible truths independent of experience. And in that pursuit, they were as rigid as
the most dogmatic medievals. Anglo-Scottish conservatives had a very different
goal. They defended national and religious tradition,
even as they cultivated what they called a “moderate skepticism”—a combination
that became known as “common sense.” I think a lot about common sense these days,
as I see American and European elites clamoring for “Enlightenment Now.” They rush to embrace every fashionable new
“ism”—socialism, feminism, environmentalism, and so on—declaring them to be universal
certainties and the only “politically correct” way of thinking. They display contempt towards those who won’t
embrace their dogmas, branding them “unenlightened,” “illiberal,” “deplorable,” and worse. But these new dogmas deserve to be greeted
with some of that old Anglo-Scottish skepticism. Enlightenment overconfidence in reason has
led us badly astray too many times. I’m Yoram Hazony, author of The Virtue of
Nationalism, for Prager University.

100 Comments

  • Kenneth Besig

    The Enlightenment brought us to the moral, legal, and cultural death of the Judeo/Christian West by calling for and working towards a Godless, immoral, illegal, and cultural destruction of the West. Human reason is usually fallible, incorrect and often genocidal regarding what people generally think or believe, the only true morality comes from God's Word, the Torah, not the illiberal and often genocidal anarchy of The Enlightenment horror.

  • Михаил Гинзбург

    I love how Prager had a video that was basically "Napoleon was not evil incarnated but much more of a gray area" a couple weeks ago and now they have video with a passing "Oh, by the way Napoleon was evil incarnated"

  • mbraxt11

    Videos a bit biased. If you really want to know how and why people pursue certain ideas read the 48 laws of power by Robert greene.

  • Ultimo Destruct-O

    The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on the sovereignty of reason and the evidence of the senses as the primary sources of knowledge and advanced ideals such as liberty, progress, toleration, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.

  • Ultimo Destruct-O

    What Was the Enlightenment?
    Alright, guys and gals, prepare to be enlightened. In this lesson, we will be covering the Enlightenment. So what was it? The Enlightenment, sometimes called the 'Age of Enlightenment', was a late 17th- and 18th-century intellectual movement emphasizing reason, individualism, and skepticism. The Enlightenment presented a challenge to traditional religious views.

    Enlightenment thinkers were the liberals of their day. They were typically humanists who supported equality and human dignity. They stood opposed (in varying degrees) to supernatural occurrences, superstition, intolerance, and bigotry.

    The Scientific Revolution of the 17th century is closely associated with the Enlightenment, and in many respects, the two overlap. Scientific thinking played a crucial role in the Enlightenment, as thinkers employed the scientific method to understand the world around them.

    There is no exact beginning date for the Enlightenment because it was such a broad movement. It did not suddenly spring up out of nowhere, but instead developed gradually. Most historians place the beginning of the Enlightenment between the mid-17th century and the beginning of the 18th century. The writings of intellectuals, like René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, and Isaac Newton, were particularly important in giving birth to the Enlightenment.

    The Enlightenment started in Europe and eventually spread to the United States, where it attracted followers like Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson. The Enlightenment died out in the early 19th century as Romanticism gained appeal.

    Major Themes of the Enlightenment
    While the Enlightenment was a tremendously broad movement, there are several core themes that were characteristic of it. One was reason. Enlightenment thinkers typically denounced supernatural occurrences as mere superstition. Here is where it gets a little tricky.

    You might think all Enlightenment thinkers were atheists, but this was not the case. In fact, most were not. To a degree, the Enlightenment spurred atheism, but more commonly, it resulted in a mix between Christianity and scientific rationalism. This is best illustrated by the deist movement that gripped Europe and the United States during the late 18th century.

    So what is deism? In simplest terms, deism is the belief that God exists, but chooses to let the universe proceed according to natural law. Deists deny supernatural occurrences and insist that God is knowable through reason and nature, not divine revelation. Deism is often conceptualized by a comparison with a clock and a clockmaker. In the deist view, God is the great 'clockmaker' who created the world (like a clock) and then allows it to 'run' according to natural operation (without supernatural intervention). Not all, but some of America's Founding Fathers were deists, most notably, Thomas Jefferson.

    Going along with reason is another Enlightenment theme, which is skepticism. By skepticism, we're talking about skepticism of religious dogma, the institutionalized church, government authority, and even skepticism of the nature of reality. To illustrate this point, let's look at something called the divine right of kings. According to this view, which had been popular among Catholics for centuries, monarchs had been placed in positions of power by the will of God and were not subject to Earthly powers. Basically, this was a fancy way of saying the king was above the law. But with the Age of Enlightenment, this idea began to lose its credibility.

    Enlightenment thinkers were skeptics. They typically rejected 'blind faith.' They wanted 'proof' in the modern sense that you and I want proof before believing something. This applied to all spheres of life, especially science, and even the nature of reality itself. This is exemplified by René Descartes, who, in searching for 'proof' of his own existence, famously said: 'I think; therefore, I am.'

  • Isaac Taleb

    I'm sorry but it's all a continuation of the work of muslim Spain in the middle ages at the time, they all built on it and developed it futher.
    Talking about democracy, separation of powers and written constitutions, Carthage already had that as it was the first democracy in human history. It's all about the accumulation of knowledge that leads to innovation.

  • John Ree

    Your understanding of history is a bit biased. Oh well not going to change your mind anytime soon, but as a nationalist I do want to point out that the isms you mentioned are not new dating back to even before the USA.

  • A Internet

    This has to be the worst PragerU video I have watched.

    Its misrepresentation of the Enlightenment and its drawing of a line from Napoleon to Marx to Kant to modern progressivism and claiming therefore conservatism is good is utterly bizarre.

  • Ultimo Destruct-O

    Enlightenment (EUROPEAN HISTORY)

    Enlightenment, French siècle des Lumières (literally “century of the Enlightened”), German Aufklärung, a European intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries in which ideas concerning God, reason, nature, and humanity were synthesized into a worldview that gained wide assent in the West and that instigated revolutionary developments in art, philosophy, and politics. Central to Enlightenment thought were the use and celebration of reason, the power by which humans understand the universe and improve their own condition. The goals of rational humanity were considered to be knowledge, freedom, and happiness.

    Enlightenment
    QUICK FACTS
    DATE
    c. 1601 – c. 1800
    LOCATION
    Europe
    CAUSES
    Methods and ways of thinking developed during the scientific revolution of the 15th through 17th centuries
    Renaissance humanism, which rediscovered Classical literature and culture
    The Reformation and its undermining of the Roman Catholic Church's authority
    OUTCOMES
    The understanding of the universe as a mechanism governed by discoverable laws
    The belief that human history is a record of progress
    The emergence of Romanticism in the late 18th century
    The first modern secularized theories of psychology and ethics
    The idea of society as a social contract
    The use and celebration of reason

    A brief treatment of the Enlightenment follows. For full treatment, see Europe, history of: The Enlightenment.

    The powers and uses of reason had first been explored by the philosophers of ancient Greece. The Romans adopted and preserved much of Greek culture, notably including the ideas of a rational natural order and natural law. Amid the turmoil of empire, however, a new concern arose for personal salvation, and the way was paved for the triumph of the Christian religion. Christian thinkers gradually found uses for their Greco-Roman heritage. The system of thought known as Scholasticism, culminating in the work of Thomas Aquinas, resurrected reason as a tool of understanding but subordinated it to spiritual revelation and the revealed truths of Christianity.

    The intellectual and political edifice of Christianity, seemingly impregnable in the Middle Ages, fell in turn to the assaults made on it by humanism, the Renaissance, and the Protestant Reformation. Humanism bred the experimental science of Francis Bacon, Nicolaus Copernicus, and Galileo and the mathematical investigations of René Descartes, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, and Sir Isaac Newton. The Renaissance rediscovered much of Classical culture and revived the notion of humans as creative beings, and the Reformation, more directly but in the long run no less effectively, challenged the monolithic authority of the Roman Catholic Church. For Martin Luther as for Bacon or Descartes, the way to truth lay in the application of human reason. Received authority, whether of Ptolemy in the sciences or of the church in matters of the spirit, was to be subject to the probings of unfettered minds.

    The successful application of reason to any question depended on its correct application—on the development of a methodology of reasoning that would serve as its own guarantee of validity. Such a methodology was most spectacularly achieved in the sciences and mathematics, where the logics of induction and deduction made possible the creation of a sweeping new cosmology. The success of Newton, in particular, in capturing in a few mathematical equations the laws that govern the motions of the planets, gave great impetus to a growing faith in the human capacity to attain knowledge. At the same time, the idea of the universe as a mechanism governed by a few simple—and discoverable—laws had a subversive effect on the concepts of a personal God and individual salvation that were central to Christianity.

    Isaac Newton, portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1689.

    © Bettmann/Corbis
    Inevitably, the method of reason was applied to religion itself. The product of a search for a natural—rational—religion was Deism, which, although never an organized cult or movement, conflicted with Christianity for two centuries, especially in England and France. For the Deist, a very few religious truths sufficed, and they were truths felt to be manifest to all rational beings: the existence of one God, often conceived of as architect or mechanician, the existence of a system of rewards and punishments administered by that God, and the obligation of humans to virtue and piety. Beyond the natural religion of the Deists lay the more radical products of the application of reason to religion: skepticism, atheism, and materialism.

    The Enlightenment produced the first modern secularized theories of psychology and ethics. John Locke conceived of the human mind as being at birth a tabula rasa, a blank slate on which experience wrote freely and boldly, creating the individual character according to the individual experience of the world. Supposed innate qualities, such as goodness or original sin, had no reality. In a darker vein, Thomas Hobbes portrayed humans as moved solely by considerations of their own pleasure and pain. The notion of humans as neither good nor bad but interested principally in survival and the maximization of their own pleasure led to radical political theories. Where the state had once been viewed as an earthly approximation of an eternal order, with the City of Man modeled on the City of God, now it came to be seen as a mutually beneficial arrangement among humans aimed at protecting the natural rights and self-interest of each.

    The idea of society as a social contract, however, contrasted sharply with the realities of actual societies. Thus, the Enlightenment became critical, reforming, and eventually revolutionary. Locke and Jeremy Bentham in England, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Denis Diderot, and Condorcet in France, and Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson in colonial America all contributed to an evolving critique of the arbitrary, authoritarian state and to sketching the outline of a higher form of social organization, based on natural rights and functioning as a political democracy. Such powerful ideas found expression as reform in England and as revolution in France and America.

    Voltaire, bronze by Jean-Antoine Houdon; in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg.
    Voltaire, bronze by Jean-Antoine Houdon; in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg.

    Scala/Art Resource, New York

    The Enlightenment expired as the victim of its own excesses. The more rarefied the religion of the Deists became, the less it offered those who sought solace or salvation. The celebration of abstract reason provoked contrary spirits to begin exploring the world of sensation and emotion in the cultural movement known as Romanticism. The Reign of Terror that followed the French Revolution severely tested the belief that an egalitarian society could govern itself. The high optimism that marked much of Enlightenment thought, however, survived for the next two centuries as one of the movement’s most-enduring legacies: the belief that human history is a record of general progress that will continue into the future. That faith in and commitment to human progress, as well as other Enlightenment values, were questioned beginning in the late 20th century within some currents of European philosophy, particularly postmodernism.

  • Michael Pezzolla

    Wow! What a bunch of nonsense. The religious institutions are the primary cause of the dark ages and almost two thousand year's of the stagnation of all attempts at knowledge. Replaced by noting but witch hunts and inquisitions. And somehow you expect people to believe that the shakles of the dark ages is what actually lead to the enlightenment? Millions and millions died in these same year's from religious nations while those in the Communist nations died by the millions. Not to mention the fact that your boy's Hitler and Stalin were both deeply religious people who both grew up in the church and both used their religious indoctrination as the excuse for their genocides. But let's just lie about everything. That's the Christian way to do things. Liars and hypocrites. That's the real teachings of Jesus. That and hatred and violence for anyone and everyone who doesn't believe in your dark age middle eastern genocidal religious fairytales. Even according to your fairytales, nobody killed more people or is as evil as your fairytale God who unleashed genocide after genocide according to your fairytales. Hitler, Pol Pot, Stalin, Mao, combined they only killed a tiny percentage of people compared to the Christians throughout their existence. How many innocent people did the Jesus believers burn to death? Nobody will ever know! How many children did Joseph Kony steal and recruit into his Christian Lord's Resistance Army? Why doesn't PregerU talk about the Christian Lord's Resistance Army or their Christian leader, the guy who kidnapped tens of thousands of innocent kids and forced them into war. Because that's the reality of what Jesus followers are actually responsible for. All the wars and struggle over the last two centuries were from religious organizations fighting human progress with violence. Let's not forget the brown Christian children that you locked in cages at the border. Why don't you call them Christians? Why do you only call those Christians illegal immigrants? Those children are praying to Jesus to save them and you're praying to Jesus to keep them in cages and send them to murderers. I guess Jesus belief doesn't trump having dark skin huh….

  • schnekm483bk Ken

    After ALL these years, WHY imagine "building" a pyramid(let alone 3) to "worship" one "man". Reason seems to be an imitation of a known logic and a worse sense of "reason". But the FACT is , IT HAPPENED! WHY bother to "rebuild" that "civilization". IT FAILED! All the "reproductions" will as well.

  • mbraxt11

    While I agree with some parts of this video, I have to call out the fact they failed to mention david Hume and how he said humans perceive events in two different ways.

  • Sword of Apollo

    This video is wildly off base. Marxism and Nazism are based on Hegelianism and Hegel was an anti-Enlightenment philosopher. Read The Ominous Parallels by Leonard Peikoff.

    Also, Burkean conservatism is not about learning from experience. It's ultimately about lacking confidence in your own mind and going by the traditions of your ancestors and society. Going by tradition would not have produced the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution.

  • Stuart Hollingsead

    The catholic dogma was overthrown in France and replaced with human logic and reason. We know how that turned out… the lawless terror of the french revolution.
    Don't get me wrong, Catholic's killed more than any other group, but the pendulum does not have to swing completely to the opposite, human intervention can slow the pendulum to a moderation of the extremes.
    1. you own a bible? heritic, burn them at the stake!
    2. you didn't say anything when the aristocrasy raised the price of grain? Off with his head, and his wifes, and his children's heads. HAHAHA "cackling laughter"
    There is a happy medium where we do not have to throw gay people off the roof.
    There is a happy medium where we do not have to throw religious minorities off a cliff.
    There is a happy medium that does not exist and never will on this earth.
    The truth of the matter is, when enough of God's people are martyred for their faith in him, God will stand up and say "enough is enough" and if not for the intersession of Jesus calling out to his father, "my blood, my blood" all would die at the melting of the elements.

  • Simon

    I really like PragerU but that video is way to short. He didn’t even finish one argument before raising another. It is a really confusing one.

  • Christopher Hickish

    Hmm not Pragers best video…a lot of guilt by association at the end there, not a fan of that when either side of an argument uses it

  • jonathan smith

    I wonder if the middle east would ever have that kind of enlightenment, that place has become more religous than what it was 40 years ago.

  • American Dream parade

    Sometimes you got to have a good heart to make good things if you don’t and you just take people as money and not Brothers and sisters my do very terrible things to them that’s why America is so great freedom of the people and freedom of thinking countries that don’t do that well they can’t get that much done because they’re told to believe in the government and not themselves or God they have to live off the government see you can think of something that freedom of thought can’t be controlled because when you control it you get nothing maybe very little but because of America we went to the moon we had cars with a AC Radios computers airplanes so many things happened Even good soda popCause order to have freedom of thought you got to give them people the freedom to do so and political correctness wants to control your freedom of thought that’s why am not a big fan of it actually I don’t want it at all I just want to be free like a Eagle or turkey only if Benjamin Franklin had his way our national bird would be a turkey

  • Ralph Bernhard

    LOL, but waaaaaay before that China, India and the Islamic Empire were already scientifically, mathematically, and medically enlightened, while Christians in dark Europe were still "burning witches".
    What a troll channel.

  • Woojae Sung

    conservatives are very rich so they sought to make something happen like medicine, science, but money can't serve people because of individuality born, and not what's good for people but what makes most money for individuals who got the money from conservatives.

  • Interceptor

    It's important to acknowledge that American constitution is not in any way based on Christianity. Most of founding fathers were deists who rejected an idea of organized religion, contrary to popular beliefs dominant nowdays in USA.

  • Robert Kenyon

    Many good ideas, but I think you misinterpret Enlightenment thinkers. Kant, after all, wrote the Critique of Pure Reason, and was hardly dogmatic in his search for solid principles of philosophy. He showed that rational thought was limited, that some very important questions had no final answers at all. Kant followed in the tradition of Hume. Kant also tried to find a principle of morality which wouldn't rest solely on religious dogma, but basically came up with a variant of the golden rule.

  • Brie Bernier

    In school they taught us how the enlightenment was the best thing ever because secularism helped us advance. Didnt believe it. Thanks for reassuring me

  • Sarah Clark

    I have been waiting for a video from PragerU on this topic. Now I just need one on the difference between a democracy and a republic from the site I trust. Sorry about that google.

  • Dominik Martinec

    I see the comments under this video and I don't know if I should cry or laugh, my views on this video are the same.
    The US constitution has freedom of religion, expression and right to bear arms, etc. These are all from the Enlightenment, USA is a secular Enlightenment based country.
    It's true that Enlightenment isn't perfect, but you're blaming it for things that it had no direct influence over.
    Marx and Gentile, were not enlightenned philosophers, they were influenced mostly by the Industrial era that they lived in, their ideologies gave us WWII and the horrors of the 20th century.
    Enlightenment came from Humanism and this came from the Renaissance, which held it's values from ancient Rome and Greece. That meaning roman and greek philosophers who were NOT Christian.
    Also Napoleon was a despot and his campaigns hurt a lot of people (french revolution too I admit it), but "Code civil" that he introduced, gave a really good foundation for Universal Human Rights that we have today.
    Plus Enlightenment gave us secular goverments which took us away from religious dogmas so we could explore scientific knowledge without being limited by religion.
    So yeah progress and the succes of the western civilization is mostly thanks to the Enlightenment.

  • Ultimo Destruct-O

    "As the Government of the United States of America is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion,—as it has in itself no character of enmity against the laws, religion, or tranquility, of Mussulmen [Muslims],—and as the said States never entered into any war or act of hostility against any Mahometan [Mohammedan] nation, it is declared by the parties that no pretext arising from religious opinions shall ever produce an interruption of the harmony existing between the two countries." — John Adams

    [Adams submitted and signed the Treaty of Tripoli, 1797]

    John Adams, Thoughts On Government Applicable To The Present State Of The American Colonies.: Philadelphia, Printed By John Dunlap, M,Dcc,Lxxxvi

    Tags: christian-nation, christian-religion, separation-of-church-and-state, united-states-government

  • BrentJohn

    3:20 "The greatest catastrophes of modernity were engineered by individuals who claimed to be exercising reason."

    Man, that's seriously profound statement!

  • Wings2Heaven Smith

    True Freedom comes In Nothing of you're own self,"Then" These may all work if you think out of the box anyway. But ( the Fear of the Lord is the Beginning of wisdom; Proverbs 9:10-12) and the knowledge of the holy is understanding ; Or:1 Corinthians 1:22-25

  • Bart Bols

    Historically disingenuous to call 15th century people who were thinking as out of the box as you could find as 'conservative thinkers', but ok. The people you name 'conservatives' were often the ones being put on the stake for being too progressive.

  • Jeff Strange

    In my opinion, enlightenment comes with invention. During the 50's, the inventions were targeted towards destruction with the use of nuclear. Everything from improvements to guns and ammo as well as deployment (ICBM's). Then, there came the Beatles, who were full of enlightenment for improving electronic music, and all sorts of more enlightenment developed from the Hertz discoveries clean down to the visual discoveries of the DNA, molecular dissociation and compound combinations, which led to more medical and physical science discoveries. At the end, you'll see it's all a progression of discoveries for both good and evil. Guess what, evil will always be used first before good crushes it.

  • Christopher

    The last PragerU video (uploaded just a couple of days ago) was about Napoleon, where Napoleon was championed and cheered…
    And in this video, Napoleon is called a brutal tyrannical dictator, who is responsible for the deaths of millions of people…
    Stupidity and contradiction at its best…

  • Isaac Smith

    My main criticism of this video is that it doesn't go back far enough, historically. Lots of excellent scholarship shows that Western Civilization's current progress can be traced back to the twelfth century, at least. E.g., Charles Homer Haskins' 'The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century', Edward Grant's 'God and Reason in the Middle Ages' and 'The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages'.

  • Ernest Imken

    The definition of reason can be warped as the speaker pointed out. The word logic, I believe, needs to have more emphasis, especially cause and effect, which leads to history.

  • mamc1986

    Nobody is saying that the Enlightenment period was perfect, humans are just nasty in general. They corrupted religion using the bad parts of the Torah, Quran and Bible (etc….) to harm people. They did the same thing with “reason and logic”. Do you think any idea is off limits for humans to corrupt?

  • Phil Barker

    PragerU lied about the meaning of "E pluribus unum" in American history because the truth did not fit their agenda. You can't lie to create your own false history, then turn around and criticize others for doing the same.

  • Eoghan Connolly

    It's telling when conservatives feel they have to launch an attack on human reason to preserve their ideology… what happened to "facts and logic"?

  • Devon Shyres

    Get rid of all corporations! And almost all problems will disappear. When companies run by lunatics have enough money to buy persuade and control government you get slavery. It has and will continue to be the down fall of society. Unfortunately anyone that reads this will be to ignorant and stupid and brainwashed to comprehend. Thus this country will be destroyed. God said my people will perish for lack of knowledge! God is never wrong. Thanks everyone for living with your head up your ass you clueless morons.

  • L.E.V.I

    This is the worst conspiracy theory and strawman I've ever heard from this channel.

    Nobody is claiming that the very first good ideas all originated post 16th century. Also, no, people aren't trying to hide religious conservatives from enlightenment history. The enlightenment simply refers to a period wherein the MAJORITY of scientific and philosophical progress took place. Aquinas didn't live during that period. Newton did. Both were religious. Most of the notable enlightenment figures were religious. This isn't hidden from people.

    Also, in order to become skeptical of human reasoning, one needs to employ reason. There is no access to moral truth that bypasses human reason. Even the divine texts must be interpreted through the lens of human reason. Even experience of the divine is filtered through a fallible human mind. The proposition that the religious texts are divinely inspired requires an initial process of human reasoning. Human Reason in the fundamental basis of all ideology. Just as reason can lead to communism, it can lead to ISIS, crusades, witch trials etc. The suggestion that evils such as Nazism and Communism result only from an unwillingness to surrender one's own reasoning is false; both because it is impossible to surrender one's own reason, and because reasoning about religious instructions can go horribly wrong just as often as reasoning without them.

    One more unreasonable video like this and I'm unsubbing.

  • Joseph Jenott

    Reason can be outweigh by another reason. Dogmatic absolution is unnatural and completely fallible. There is no one way, save for the way of mine and the way of many. Reason is only as strong as those who practice it, analyze, memorize, formulate theory, think within and without the box, understand the ways of others and if they are open criticize them for their betterment. But the way is not forced, reason will at best, teach one to embrace many and reject only fractions of these, delve into costoms, remember the past, build from it, but do not remake it. You may turn around to walk back but you cannot safely walk backwards. Keep moving forward and keep a clear understanding of the variables within view. One seeks enlightenment? LOOK AROUND, from one thing learn ten thousand things. The way is not forced, the way is understood and can only be taught to those who can admit they are wrong, the way is fantastic so that reason is not blinding you from beauty and madness does not break your resolve, the way is of many and the way is of none. This is the way, I have spoken.

  • rob hansen

    "The goal of Socialism is Communism." "Vladimir Lenin – Soviet Leader."

    "Give me four years to teach the children and the seed I have sown will never be uprooted."
    -Vladimir Lenin "Give us the child for 8 years and it will be a Bolshevik forever." -Vladimir Lenin

    Multiculturalism, feminism, and Marxism that we now are seeing in the west shouldn't come as a surprise at all ..

    The Kremlin has used this as a destabilizing tool for years infiltrating educational institutions with leftist propaganda by promoting these Marxist ideas into the western intelligentsia thinking and in the community with the help of labor unions.. The Kremlin has infected this into western society for generations and now we are seeing the effect of it !! The Russian call this form of attack for Active measures…

    The point of this is not to make you believe in anything but to create enough doubt, distrust, and confusion within the populous of the western nations that the Kremlin is attacking that the people will start to distrust their own government and media, it is, in other words, the good old game of divide and conquer Kremlin style ..

    Also now that they fare liberal left has gong totally bonkers and the West's educational institutions are all full of liberal professors (so job done ) the Kremlin is now shifting its focus so it can maximize the effect of their divide and conquer evil game of the Active measures strategies, by supporting right-wing element's all over the EU, UK , and the USA and every one from internet bloggers to political parties, Milos Zeman, Viktor Orbán and Le Pen in France and other useful dimwits like Pablo Iglesias Turrión from Spain's Podemos political party and Matteo Renzi Prime Minister of Italy and others in high offices in all EU nations; All of them and their political party are receiving indirectly and directly financial and funding from the Kremlin and have close business deals with Russian state companies… and they are all well known to bang the kremlin drums in the EU JUST LIKE Pro-Kremlin Czech president Milos Zeman..

    What those guys don't really understand is this all of this comes from the KGBs disinformation handbook from back in the day of the cold war and the Kremlin back then and today uses these conspiracies to discredit the US, and the west to the rest of the world and their own populous …

    Take a look her at the link (Russian: активные мероприятия / Aktivnyye Meropriyatiya) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_measures

    Active measure is a Soviet term for the actions of political warfare conducted by the Soviet security services ( KGB )and now used by the Russian security services ( FSB) to influence the course of world events, in the Russian Kremlins favor, this includes but not limited to collecting intelligence and producing "politically correct" assessment of it,, and Active measures range "from media manipulations to special actions involving various degrees of violence".

    They included disinformation, propaganda, counterfeiting official documents, assassinations, and political repression, such as penetration into churches, Active measures included the establishment and support of international front organizations (e.g. the World Peace Council); foreign communist, socialist and opposition parties; wars of national liberation in the Third World; and underground, revolutionary, insurgency, criminal, and terrorist groups subversion: active measures to weaken the West, to drive wedges in the Western community alliances of all sorts, particularly NATO, to sow discord among allies, to weaken the United States in the eyes of the people of Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin

    America, and thus to prepare the ground in case the war really occurs..

    And how do we know that this was and still is run by the Russian Kremlin ???

    We know this because we know who Vasili Mitrokhin was …..

    And who was he you ask …

    He was a KGB cold war agent that became a defector to the west that took with him KGB files regarding the Active measures programs see link https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasili_Mitrokhin

    Some of the active measures by the USSR against the United States were exposed in the Mitrokhin Archive: Well known Kremlin Active measures conspiracy theories put into the western minds …

    Starting rumors that the Jewish "Control" of the Federal Reserve for the new word order and anti-Semitic propaganda has demonized the Jew as a conspiratorial, manipulative outsider, often with powers and designs of world domination helped along by the USA government and the American banks run and owned by the Rothschild jews.

    Starting rumors that fluoridated drinking water was, in fact, a plot by the US government to effect population control.]

    Starting rumors that the moon landings were hoaxes and the money ostensibly used by NASA was in actuality used by the CIA.

    Starting rumors that US, government at the top level let Pearl Harbor happen so the American industrial complex and Banks got the US public to join in and take part in ww2 .
    Use of sympathetic elements in the press to label the strategic defense initiative as an impractical "star wars" scheme.

    Fabrication of the story that AIDS virus was manufactured by US scientists at Fort Detrick; the story was spread by Russian-born biologist Jakob Segal.
    Discrediting of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), using historian Philip Agee (codenamed PONT).

    Attempts to discredit Martin Luther King, Jr. by placing publications portraying him as an "Uncle Tom" who was secretly receiving government subsidies[citation needed]

    Stirring up racial tensions in the United States by mailing bogus letters from the Ku Klux Klan, placing an explosive package in "the Negro section of New York" (operation PANDORA), and spreading conspiracy theories that Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination had been planned by the US government

    TAKE A LOOK AT THIS VIDEO AND THEN YOU WILL UNDERSTAND !!

    Yuri Bezmenov ex KGB : Psychological Warfare Subversion & Control of Western Society (Complete)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5gnpCqsXE8g&app=desktop

    Yuri Bezmenov: Deception Was My Job (Complete) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y3qkf3bajd4&t=385s

    Yuri Bezmenov: KGB Psychological Warfare and Subversion Strategy Part 1
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AAYQ-rfj1CI

    Socialism: A Warning from the Dead
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=69XHTgLEJq4

    Communism and Feminism https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gXn_wdveMg0

    Parents Fighting Back Against Gender Identity Doctrine https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Usa1wt-36xk

  • Brother Fred

    " there is a way that seems right unto a man but the end thereof are the ways of death" " it is not in man to direct his own steps" without the revelation of truth found in the Bible, mankind is lost.

  • Avidcomp

    The Enlightenment isn't the starting point to modern progress. It is Aristotelian study, a philosopher that had previously been banned under Christianity until 13th century Thomas Aquinas.
    It was the fundamentals of Aristotle that led to the renaissance and then to the enlightenment.
    And for the record, Kant is anti-reason. In effect the biggest influencer of undoing the progress of enlightenment, not its advocate.

  • Aaron James

    The enlightenment seems to mean many things to many people… one misconception is many think it means a time when religion was done away with.
    That certainly is partly a product of the enlightenment, but its not the enlightenment per se..
    The enlightenment was a removal of dogmatism… It was the general view that Descartes "cogito Ergo Sum was the basis of knowledge so to speak.. But hume came along and pretty much debunked it.. Kant came along and stated that Hume theories woke him from his "dogmatic slumber", he then went out and showed that "mere reason" was still a valid form of knowledge, and that hume empiricism had not destroyed it… there for creating a massive Metaphysical frame work of idealism and changing philosophy for ever.
    I find it odd that this video trys to use Hume, who was a empiricist and Atheist (allegedly) in defence of conservatism and religion. Kind of bizarre..
    John Locke was someone he looked towards.

    The Enlightenment was about shedding Dogmatism… which helped science and many other fields. and helped church and religion be less dogmatic in the process, which is helpful.

  • Antony G

    The Rise of neo-Marxism: The opportunity for the masses to drive the political agenda has always depended on whether or not a dominant top-down power structure exists in society. The average person for most of human history had no opportunity to determine the political direction of their community or society. This changed for the first time in the 17th and 18th centuries when the European monarchies started to lose influence on how their societies were run.

    When society does not have an all dominant top-down power structure there will always be a major ideological struggle between how the wealth in society is distributed. This is because there are two main widely held fundamentally conflicting world views on how wealth is best created and distributed.

    Events like the French and Russian revolutions were fundamentally about conflicts over who owned the wealth resulting from the previous existing top-down power structure disappearing i.e. the European monarchies significantly losing power to the point of collapse.

    Most people believe that only one ideological stream came out of the 18th century which means that everything that has gone right and wrong since must be the fault of the Enlightenment and classical liberalism. In reality, a second major ideological world view had burst forth into the Western world at exactly the same time as the Enlightenment. This top-down collectivist ideology ultimately became the fully fleshed out philosophy called Marxism.
    It was the failure of what might be called proto-Marxism in the early period of the Enlightenment which allowed classical liberalism to dominate for around 200 years from the mid 18th century to the mid 20th century. All of the problems that have developed in the West—from individualism to corporatism—are actually a product of the rise of top-down collectivism throughout the West after WW2.

    Everything changed in the mid-late 20th century when the effects of socialism was combined with the political philosophy called Critical Theory which resulted in the systematic dismantling and atomization of Western culture. The anti-Enlightenment had finally gained widespread power and influence after nearly a ¼ of a millennia trying. Their new doctrine of neo-Marxism was spreading throughout the West like a virus.

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