Why Are There SO Many Confederate Monuments?
Articles,  Blog

Why Are There SO Many Confederate Monuments?

This is the Appomattox statue in Alexandria
Virginia, a monument constructed in 1889 to honor Alexandria’s Confederate dead in the
US Civil War. Since then, it has been at the center of debates
about the use of public space. People wrestle with the decision to honor
the history of those who supported the Southern Confederacy’s secession from the Union,
which was largely in order to continue racialized slavery. Opponents have argued that the statue stands
as a testament to intolerance and racism, and that although the statue is still privately
owned by the United Daughters of the Confederacy, the fact that it’s situated on public land
means that it should be torn down because it represents a racist and harmful viewpoint. Those in favor of keeping the statue where
it is remark that the Confederacy, no matter how outdated and incorrect its stances, was
a part of US history and that this history shouldn’t be forgotten. So today I’ll open up the conversation to
look at how monuments like this one represent the US’s struggle to accurately describe
its more painful histories. I’ll discuss why so many Confederate and
other Civil War monuments were built between the late 19th century and the first half of
the 20th century, and what impulses drove their construction during those crucial years
after the war. Appomattox notably doesn’t show an image
of an army general or Confederate politician. Rather it’s a simple rank and file soldier
with his hat in his hand and his head bowed in defeat. On the base are the names of Alexandrians
who died fighting for the Confederacy. This gesture isn’t uncommon in monuments
of fallen soldiers, but its subject has made it cause for public concern. Claims that Confederate iconography are synonymous
with “Southern Heritage” has raised well founded questions about “whose heritage”
and “who does this history support or vilify?” And that’s in large part because in erecting
monuments after a conflict, it’s highly unusual for the side that definitively lost
to be honored, let alone to occupy public space. Which is why the image of Appomattox, with
a visibly defeated Confederate soldier standing in commemoration of his lost cause and fallen
comrades is quite unusual. Rather than raising the now infamous call
that “the South shall rise again” both his posture and the inscription of the plaque
below his feet indicate otherwise. Around 2015 and 2016 the US increased the
attention it paid to the civil war monuments scattered across the country honoring Confederate
generals and soldiers. Arguments raged on both sides of the debate,
with proponents of tearing down these statues noting the inflammatory and racist politics
of the men that they were meant to honor. They also called for the immediate removal
of Confederate flags from state symbols. Those in favor of keeping the symbols and
statues argued that these signs were indicative of US history and even if they were abhorrent,
they should not be hidden or forgotten. As headlines circulated around protesters
on both sides of the debate, questions started to arise about why the US had so much Confederate
iconography to begin with. When were the statues built and who funded
their construction before they occupied public land? And how do monuments turn individuals into
heroes and shape the discourse around our shared national identity? Well it comes as no surprise that the lion’s
share of these symbols sprung into prominence as monuments and memorials after the war’s
conclusion. From the moment the Civil War ended the US
has struggled with how to narrate its slave holding past. But the construction of these monuments and
memorials came in two primary waves that weren’t directly tied to the official cease fire. In fact most came at two key moments within
a hundred year span: The Post-Reconstruction Period from the 1880s
until the 1920s And… the eve of the US Civil Rights Movement in
the 1960s. It wasn’t a random coincidence that the
statues went up during those time periods. As Professor Sanford Levinson notes in his
book on monuments, quote, “those with political power within a given society organize public
space to convey (and thus to teach the public) desired political lessons.” But part of the stickiness of the discussion
around monuments, as Levinson also notes, is that they aren’t just ideological symbols,
they also bear the weight of being public art. And as he writes about monuments as art: “Art is, among other things, both the terrain
of and often a weapon in, the culture wars that course through societies. This is, of course, especially true of public
art–the art chosen self-consciously by public institutions to symbolize the public order
and to inculcate in its viewers appropriate attitudes toward that order.” First, we have the end of Reconstruction. New Confederate monuments in the 1880s and
1890s were promoting a return to white supremacy and institutional slavery. Reconstruction had spanned from roughly the
end of the war until the late 1870s. The period did see brief strides for newly
emancipated black citizens. But the end of the era was also marked by
an incredibly swift reversal of the tides with the rise of the Ku Klux Klan, resurgent
white nationalism, increased violence (such as organized lynchings) and reduced rights. During Reconstruction, when Northern officials
remained in temporary control of the war-ravaged Southern states, the symbols and ideology
of the Confederacy were removed from public view. But as the period came to a close, Northern
and Southern officials looked to make political concessions, most often at the expense of
black citizens. This included most notably the passing of
Jim Crow Laws. Jim Crow Laws were designed to extend the
horrors of institutional slavery in Southern states under a different name. This meant stopping black citizens from voting,
organizing the convict leasing system in order to force black citizens to work without pay,
and manipulating the legal system to strip them of Constitutional rights. For more on convict leasing, be sure to check
out our episode on the origins of Private Prisons. So Confederate monuments were working to promote
the (at that time) contemporary ideologies of the state. Namely, a return to white supremacy and institutional
slavery. It also marked an important moment in the
history of men who died and fought for the Confederacy and their families. Because also around this time the surviving
soldiers and their families were aging. Many had infiltrated public office to continue
promoting the official agenda of the Confederacy. Others turned their eye to establishing private
organizations that celebrated a glorified version of the Confederate past. Enter: the “Cult of the Lost Cause.” In the aftermath of the economic devastation
of the war, the so called “Cult of the Lost Cause” became an outlet for white Confederate
supporting Southerners to express cultural pride in institutional slavery and their “lost
way of life.” A 1999 application made to the National Register
of Historic Places notes: “The Cult of the Lost Cause had its roots
in the Southern search for justification and the need to find a substitute for victory
in the Civil War. In attempting to deal with defeat, Southerners
created an image of the war as a great heroic epic. A major theme of the Cult of the Lost Cause
was the clash of two civilizations, one inferior to the other….Like tragic heroes, Southerners
had waged a noble but doomed struggle to preserve their superior civilization. There was an element of chivalry in the way
the South had fought, achieving noteworthy victories against staggering odds. This was the “Lost Cause” as the late
nineteenth century saw it, and a whole generation of Southerners set about glorifying and celebrating
it.” But glorification and commemoration of soldiers
at the conclusion of wartime wasn’t unique to Southern states. In fact it was ubiquitous throughout the United
States on either side of the Mason Dixon. In her research on monuments of Civil War
soldiers, art historian Sarah Beetham of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, notes
that many of the monuments were sold by New England manufacturers (like the Monumental
Bronze Co. in Bridgeport, CT) at the end of the 19th century. In an article for the Washington Post she’s
quoted saying how many of the statues are identical in structure, and that companies
were selling cheap pre-fab designs to towns all over the country without altering the
appearance of the soldiers at all. It wasn’t until some Southern towns noticed
the replication that small alterations were made, including adding slouched Confederate
caps. Another distinguishing feature is the engraving
on their belt buckles: with “C.S.” for Confederate Soldier and “U.S.” for Union
Soldier. As mythologies of the Civil War occurred in
the public sphere, monuments became particularly fertile ground for advancing individual political
agendas. The second wave of Confederate monuments built
came in the 1950s and 1960s, both to mark the hundred year anniversary of Southern defeat
and also as a sign of opposition to the 20th century’s Civil Rights movement that saw
a number of legal victories for black citizens. In fact the South Carolina state grounds became
the center of heated public debate in 2015, when under the weight of public outrage state
officials agreed to lower the Confederate Flag. But the flag had only been implemented in
the capitol since 1961, as a stinging rebuke of the Civil Rights movement. But although the amount of news coverage of
these monuments has begun to fade, statues like Appomattox and others still remain in
place around the country. And in recent counting, the Southern Poverty
Law Center notes that there are: 780 monuments, more than 300 of which are
in Georgia, Virginia and North Carolina; 103 public K-12 schools and three colleges
named for Robert E. Lee, Jefferson Davis or other Confederate icons;
80 counties and cities named for Confederates; 9 observed state holidays in five states;
and 10 U.S. military bases. But at the heart of this debate over monuments
is a larger question about how and when we decide to commemorate history and whose stories
are told. Monuments, although they often fade to the
background as we zip by them during our busy days, still carry tremendous historical and
contemporary weight. But despite their often forgettable (or in
the case of the Citizen Soldier statues, generic) appearances, monuments shape the public narrative
of nations. They exemplify how we create the stories we
tell ourselves and each other about our collective past. This also brings to light who history belongs
to, by highlighting and heroising some while others are maligned, harmed, or all together
ignored. And that’s largely because those symbols
don’t just mark a particular event or moment. Rather they elevate something by occupying
public space, celebrating or denigrating the narratives of individual historical actors,
and bringing into view exactly who history is supposed to be for.


  • Matooley O'Brien

    NOTICE no one had a issue UNTIL 2015-16.?? HUMM? Sounds like it was getting close to election time and certain folks like race baiters & opportunistic politicitians had a agenda to push. As a Biracial American I don't have any problem with keeping them up and honoring the dead soldiers Regardless of their beliefs…but furthermore I WANT THEM TO STAND as a reminder of how my people were treated and enslaved and how FAR we have come…we can't whitewash the Evils of slavery away by removing them..as the saying goes Those that forget the past…I do take offense to the lady in the video who keeps respeating it's on public land. Yes it is on Public land!!!. And a lot of the folks like me and others we are the Public and paid taxes..We who love History want all statues and monuments to stand where they have over time… Why for all this time there's never been much anything said ? so obviously the people that's been alive never had a problem with it..I venture to say thousands go past it every year and don't even really know who it is.. so who's these people popping up out of nowhere??? The answer is politicians who use identity politics and want to stir up trouble over things where there has been none… I will say it seems people in the last few years are too babyfied with their emotions and they need to get thicker skin and quit letting things upset them so bad….

  • Jason Huff

    C O R W I N Amendment.
    Read it.
    Lincoln’s FIRST Inaugural address, read it.

    Be honest, you think racist men from the north went south to save blacks and possibly die from racist men in the south??
    You honestly think that southern men without slaves, NOT from families who had slaves, would fight and die to protect OTHER Mens slaves???
    Or do you think it was about patriotism for both North and South??
    It was about who could set the prices of exports and controlling taxes.
    Were they racist??
    But only a very small portion fought for or against slavery.

  • Southern Gentleman

    To remember the 600,000 Americans that died. There are Union monuments and Confederate monuments to pay respects to those who died.

  • Southern Gentleman

    List of causes of the Civil War-

    Harpers Ferry

    On the night of October 16, 1859, Brown and a band of followers seized the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia), in what is believed to have been an attempt to arm a slave insurrection. (Brown denied this at his trial, but evidence indicated otherwise.) They were dislodged by a force of U.S. Marines led by Army lieutenant colonel Robert E. Lee.

    Brown was swiftly tried for treason against Virginia and hanged. Southern reaction initially was that his acts were those of a mad fanatic, of little consequence. But when Northern abolitionists made a martyr of him, Southerners came to believe this was proof the North intended to wage a war of extermination against white Southerners. Brown’s raid thus became a step on the road to war between the sections.

    States' Rights

    The idea of states' rights was not new to the Civil War. Since the Constitution was first written there had been arguments about how much power the states should have versus how much power the federal government should have. The southern states felt that the federal government was taking away their rights and powers.

    Political power

    That was not enough to calm the fears of delegates to an 1860 secession convention in South Carolina. To the surprise of other Southern states—and even to many South Carolinians—the convention voted to dissolve the state’s contract with the United States and strike off on its own.

    South Carolina had threatened this before in the 1830s during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, over a tariff that benefited Northern manufacturers but increased the cost of goods in the South. Jackson had vowed to send an army to force the state to stay in the Union, and Congress authorized him to raise such an army (all Southern senators walked out in protest before the vote was taken), but a compromise prevented the confrontation from occurring.

    Perhaps learning from that experience the danger of going it alone, in 1860 and early 1861 South Carolina sent emissaries to other slave holding states urging their legislatures to follow its lead, nullify their contract with the United States and form a new Southern Confederacy. Six more states heeded the siren call: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. Others voted down secession—temporarily. When President Lincoln called for Volunteers to invade the south, six southern states voted to join the Confederacy.

    The issue of slavery

    The burning issue that led to the disruption of the union was the debate over the future of slavery. Secession brought about a war in which the Northern and Western states and territories fought to preserve the Union, and the South fought to establish Southern independence as a new confederation of states under its own constitution.

    Most of the states of the North, meanwhile, one by one had gradually abolished slavery. A steady flow of immigrants, especially from Ireland and Germany during the potato famine of the 1840s and 1850s, insured the North a ready pool of laborers, many of whom could be hired at low wages, diminishing the need to cling to the institution of slavery. Child labor was also a growing trend in the North.

    The agrarian South utilized slaves to tend its large plantations and perform other duties. On the eve of the Civil War, some 4 million Africans and their descendants toiled as slave laborers in the South. Slavery was interwoven into the Southern economy although only a relatively small portion of the population actually owned slaves.

    – History . net

  • Southern Gentleman

    10,000 Jews fought for the confederacy. 10,000 Native Americans fought for the Confederacy. 13,000 Latinos fought for the confederacy. Several hundred Asians fought for the Confederacy. Over a thousand free African Americans fought for the confederacy.

    I’m done with haters.

  • John Labus

    As someone who strongly thinks that all of these monuments need to come down from "the public square", I do understand the trickiness of the issue since the side that was defeated in the Civil War were previously American citizens, and once again American citizens following their defeat.

    I completely concur with the narrative in this video regarding the intent of erecting these monuments in the first place, but I also think that an enormous number of Americans today don't even know that the statues that they see regularly in their cities are confederate monuments. I'd suppose that this is especially true in the South's larger and faster growing cities. Many of these statues are neither revered nor despised by a significant number of local citizens; they are simply part of a familiar backdrop to their cities. The video even says it too; the statues are often generic. To many Americans they are just that: statues. Many, if not most, Americans LOVE statues. I dare say that, in this context, their removal becomes a delicate surgery because people have gotten used to them being there in a prominent place that makes their city "Instagramable". Now, I'm not saying that they can't or shouldn't be removed, I'm only trying to paint a picture of where I think the change process needs to begin. I don't think that it's enough to use outrage today as the reason to take them down. I think this entire story about how they came to be in the first place needs to be told and understood. Outrage without context or reason is often dismissed as hysteria.

    Conversely, the battle flag of the confederacy is a much more easily recognized symbol that all Americans know is different from the American Flag, immediately upon viewing. There are less steps in ones mind to come to come to a conclusion about whether or not it should stay or go.

  • Lawrence Moore

    Because most White People in America are racists that hearken for the " good ole days" when there was no CONSEQUENCE for harming, brutalizing or murdering Black People! Plus, Conservatives do love their hate symbols!!!


    It could also be that people wanted simply to honor their dead, to give higher meaning to such a tragedy. Over 600,000 American dead. White, Black, North, South, rich, poor, men, women, children forever scarred. To this day the nation feels it more than any other conflict other than the Revolution.

    The Acient Egyptians held slaves, but no one suggests we destroy or hide the detritus of their civilization. The Romans, and Greeks, who gave us ideas like democracy and republics, held slaves, conquered in war, knew defeats, but we do not destroy their monuments, or assassinate their legacy and character in an attempt to make a contemporary political point, or prove our higher morality.

    We know what those who fought the American Civil War were like, what they were about, their aspirations, intentions, and objectives for better and for worse.

    What's troubling is how there is this need today to eradicate them, the history, the memories with cold, contemptuous, calculated censorship.

    I cannot imagine going to an 18th century monument anywhere that commemorates HM George III or the British Army and destroying it, because they were once our enemies in war, whose mission was to prevent our pursuit of Independence.

    I wouldn't deliberately destroy a bust of Stalin, Mao, or Hitler despite my conviction that these men were as close to monsters and tyrants as humans can be, because that would testify to my character and condemn me to be little better.

    If the Union could be restored, if North and South could make peace, if all Americans can now live free, then perhaps it's time to put this past to rest, learn from it, so as not to repeat it, and let the dead be. What can be gained by fighting this war over and over? Are we so petty, feeble minded, and weak that the mere sight of a stone or statue can drive us into an emotional rage?

    What's next? Shall we desecrate graves, disinter all Confederates, smash their head stones, scatter their bones, and dance on the plots? It wouldn't hurt them, they wouldn't know, but it would hurt us, and we would know that America has lost its mind, it's decency, and that we enthusiastically admit to being unworthy of human dignity, beneath magnanimity, and openly invite future generations to defile our memory, because we said it was OK.

  • Andrew Lipscomb

    Slavery was not being threatened by the north. Lincoln and the Republicans had zero interest in abolishing slavery, just collecting tariff revenue and using it to enrich the north at the cost of the rest of the country.

  • Formally known as Rex X

    To scare foundational black Americans during Jim Crow and Civil Rights Era when most of the monuments were erected 🤷🏾‍♂️
    Who gives statues to losers and terrorist?

  • friendly windmill

    Its quite funny how the same people who call us traitors are the same people who also see it fit to strip every amendment they disagree with from the founding document of this country.

  • dance fan -Raúl

    the Left would like to remove
    the statues of generals,
    because they HATE the south

    the Left would like to remove
    the statues of G. Washington
    and Founding Fathers, because
    they HATE USA
    the left would like to remove
    the statues of Ronald Reagan
    because they HATE capitalism
    the Left would like to erect
    the statues of Stalin and
    Bernie Sanders 💋
    because the left LOVE
    communism and socialism

    the Left in USA is much more
    hateful and divisive than the
    Left in Mexico, my country.

  • Masta Flex

    Because they are monuments to the 2nd american revolution that's was lost and the 1st successful propaganda campaign that worked to indoctrinate the people that the banks and corporations are the good guys and the people are the enemy , and it worked

  • Robert Cherry

    It's interesting that there's a defense by modern confederate sympathizers that the war of northern agression wasn't about slavery/white supremacy but the documents from the confederates state otherwise.

    As I understand things, the "state rights" argument is an attempt to obscure the truth.

  • Wendell O'Reilly

    You don't seem to understand why most monuments were built after 1880: the South was devastated economically. People were trying to survive. Monuments are not required for daily existence. Tennessee did not have the GDP she had in 1860 until 1900. It was not the rise of white supremacy that caused monuments to be constructed, it was economics. White supremacy was baked into the cake in April, 1865. If you doubt it, ask why there was no large exodus of blacks from the South until WW1.

  • Natcha Uthaug

    Dear Origin of everything!

    I love your series, but could you please speak a little slower in the videos?!
    Im sure I am speaking for many students who is non native English speakers.
    I speak English on a daily basis, but its still challenging for me to follow your videos.


  • travisleeabq

    So if you have the moral authority
    To tear down Confederate monuments, I claim the moral authority to tear down the Lincoln Memorial, monuments to union soldiers and any monuments to MLK or Malcom X.

    What makes your “offense” morally superior to mine?

    Why is it with all these monument tear downs, and renaming of schools, black people only seem angrier and angrier?

    What makes you any better than the Taliban who blew up centuries old statues of Buddha?

  • Lauren Ink

    Just became a Patron! Thank you and keep up the great work. The work that you and your team are producing is so important and valuable. Thank you so much!

  • The_Rebel_Traitor

    They put up Confederate statues to honor the soldiers. The soldiers did not fight for slavery. They fought for many different reasons. Same for the north

  • Karl Burkhalter

    Lincoln led Republicans controlled both houses of the 37th Congress. One of their select committees was the “Committee on Emancipation and Colonization.” The following resolution from that committee explains exactly what motivated Northern “anti-slavery.” Anti-slavery meant nothing more than “anti-black;” and to rid the country of an “inferior race” to prevent amalgamation. It was this kind of immoral racism that led to Southern secession in the first place. Is it any wonder that the MISSISSIPPI Declaration of Secession laments that the North “seeks not to elevate or to support the slave, but to destroy his present condition without providing a better.” If this is why the South was “pro-slavery,” in order to protect their black neighbors from Northern racism, what else are we not being told about the cause of secession and war?

    37th Congess.
    No. 148. REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON EMANCIPATION AND COLONIZATION,In the House of Resentatives, July 16, 1862:

    “It is useless, now, to enter upon any philosophical inquiry whether nature has or has not made the negro inferior to the Caucasian. The belief is indelibly fixed upon the public mind that such inequality does exist. There are irreconcilable differences between the two races which separate them,
    as with a wall of fire. The home for the African must not be within the limits of the present territory of the Union. The Anglo- American looks upon every acre of our present domain as intended for him, and not for the negro. A home, therefore, must be sought for the African beyond our own limits and in those warmer regions to which his constitution is better adapted than to our own climate,and which doubtless the Almighty intended the colored races should inhabit and cultivate.

    Much of the objection to emancipation arises from the opposition of a large portion of our people to the intermixture of the races, and from the association of white and black labor. The committee would do nothing to favor such a policy; apart from the antipathy which nature has ordained, the presence of a race among us who cannot, and ought not to be admitted to our social and political privileges, will be a perpetual source of injury and inquietude to both. This is a question of color, and is unaffected by the relation of master and slave.

    The introduction of the negro, whether bond or free, into the same field of labor with the white man, is the opprobrium of the latter… We wish to disabuse our laboring countrymen, and the whole Caucasian race who may seek a home here, of this error… The committee conclude that the highest interests of the white race, whether Anglo-Saxon, Celt, or Scandinavian, require that the whole country should be held and occupied by those races.”

    General Lee exclaimed:"The best men in the South have long desired to do away with the institution of slavery, and are quite willing to see it abolished. UNLESS SOME HUMANE COURSE, BASED ON WISDOM AND CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES IS ADOPTED, you do them great injustice in setting them free.”
    CSA Governor Henry W Allen Jan 1865

    "To the English philanthropist who professes to feel so much for the slave, I would say, come and see the sad and cruel workings the scheme.–Come and see the negro in the hands of his Yankee liberators. See the utter degradation–the ragged want–the squalid poverty. These false, pretended friends treat him with criminal neglect. William H. Wilder, He says the negroes have died like sheep with the rot. In the Parish of Iberville, out of six hundred and ten slaves, three hundred and ten have perished. Tiger Island, at Berwicks Bay, is one solid grave yard. At New Orleans, Thibodaux, Donaldsonville, Plaquemine, Baton Rouge, Port Hudson, Morganza, Vidalia, Young's Point and Goodrich's Landing, the acres of the silent dead will ever be the monuments of Yankee cruelty to these unhappy wretches. Under published orders from General Banks, The men on plantations were to be paid from six to eight dollars per month, In these orders the poor creatures after being promised this miserable pittance, were bound by every catch and saving clause that a lawyer could invent. For every disobedience their wages were docked. For every absence from labor they were again docked. In the hands of the grasping Yankee overseer, the oppressed slave has been forced to toil free of cost to his new master. I saw a half-starved slave who had escaped from one of the Yankee plantations, he said "that he had worked hard for the Yankees for six long months–that they had 'dockered' him all the time, and had never paid him one cent!" The negro has only changed masters, and very much for the worse! And now, without present reward or hope for the future, he is dying in misery and want. Look at this picture ye negro worshippers, and weep, if you have tears to shed over the poor down-trodden murdered children of Africa."

  • Andy Thompson

    When one travels to Italy or Egypt, or many other countries in which ancient cultures and civilizations were located, you find statues and monuments honoring kings and emperors and pagan gods, all of which are largely irrelevant to modern society. In my opinion, these Confederate monuments represent a culture and society that no longer exists.  As a historic preservationist, I would advocate that all monuments to past cultures inside the US should be preserved. Including Native American monuments such as the Ocmulgee Indian Mounds in Georgia, monuments to King George III, Spanish and Russian monuments and churches in California and Alaska, etc.  In Mexico and Central and South America, they preserve monuments erected by the Aztec, Mayan and Inca cultures, even though they engaged in slavery, wars, and even human sacrifice.  Rather than trying to tear down and destroy monuments from past cultures, enlightened and progressive modern cultures see the benefits of historic preservation.  These Confederate Monuments are works of art which should be preserved in their present locations. "Danielle" does a very good job at trying to psychoanalyze the intentions of people she never met, who a century ago erected monuments to honor the sacrifices of their fathers, brothers, sons, etc.  There is nothing wrong or devious or evil in their intentions. The American Civil War was just like every other war that has been fought in the history of mankind over the past 5,000 years, in that the young men who do the majority of the fighting and suffering and dying, are the ones who have the least say so in the politics and economics that controls their fate. Many of us today have doubts as to how the US government conducted the war in Southeast Asia in the 1960's and 70's, but we still respect and admire the suffering of the young men who served there. Leave the monuments alone and stop destroying things.

  • James Martinelli

    'A View of the Constitution' by William Rawle – used as a textbook at West Point in the 1820's and later. The author, a Founding Father, allows for secession. The book is still in print and is available on Amazon. In 1869 a justice of the Federal Supreme Court stated that no Confederate would be found guilty of treason in court.

  • James Martinelli

    1961? 'a stinging rebuke of the Civil Rights Movement'. Hmm. More likely a 100 year remembrance of the commencement of Lincoln's War. BTW, what say you about the 'Only Black' dormitories now on hundreds of campuses now – and the all black graduations and after-parties?

  • James Martinelli

    Lincoln proposed his 'American System': tax-payer funds for 'internal improvements' i.e. canal and rail-road building. Such funding had been dis-allowed in many states North and South because it was graft and corruption: in today's parlance it was 'corporate welfare'. The 1861 Republicans in the FEDERAL government raised tariffs enormously – they were paid largely by the 25% of the population in the SOUTH – as such tariffs only applied to imported goods. BTW, the South provided 70% of our country's exports. The Republican Party – the first sectional party in our history – waged war economically on the South. States seceded. Lincoln lied to the governor of South Carolina about provisioning Ft. Sumter. Firing commenced. Lincoln asked states to raise troops to invade the Deep South. Four more states seceded. For more details: 'the Real Lincoln' by Dr. Thomas J Di Lorenzo.

  • Jon West Sr

    Before our Right of Association was taken from us, the majority of people in the South, honoured their ancestors struggle to preserve the government as handed to them by the Founders. The socialist coup under the Lincoln regime and "reconstruction" of our entire country set the stage for political correctness, and other bolshevik planks to be nailed down as the lid on the casket of the American Republic. Now that several brainwashed generations have come into politics and local government they would tear down such monuments. And, like most self-righteous, virtue-signaling, self-hating, ignorami, they saw-off the limb upon which they sit, expecting the tree to fall. What a stupid spineless generation.

  • Marie Miller

    listen to the terms used here… 1 struggle to narrate american history
    ( meaning how to spin it so it fits a political agenda) 2. teach the public the DESIRED political lessons (again meaning the facts take a back seat to the political ideology being pushed)
    3. inculcate in its viewers the appropriate attitudes . who gets to decide what attitude is appropriate and what is not when it comes to the way a person perceives an art work ?
    not much mention of the fact that families in the south were destroyed hardly a one did not suffer the loss of a father,husband,brother or son the monuments were mostly put up to help heal the wounds of a war torn nation and allow the side that lost to have places to mourn losses something to help widows and orphans make sense out of such horrific events the plan was to help the nation come back together and get on track for the good of both sides.. this helped the nation avoid years of terrorist attacks after the war ended which would be counterproductive to ending the conflict for good and help reconstruction efforts

  • Fire Shock Gamer

    I think the kkk was used to villianize the south… As there was still intent of rebellion.

    So it's not the flag im worried about
    The flag had been destroyed yet can be saved by changing its image from "slavery white supremacy" to "southern land of Dixie"

    As i see people wanting the flag to represent the south not to advance a racist past.

    I'm sorry to those effected by these occurrences … But I have made my choice….
    Be it as it may I wish to see a south not seeing themselves above blacks …. But as receiving equal …. Not pay but change of life.

    No one to be charged by color….
    But if you use words like they black or white , that's just saying we see you are a diffrent color than us ,also we are scared just the same as you.

    I am scared to say this but the more I advance the more the word will engrave itself.

  • C. W. Johnson Jr

    The lower south seceded over slavery, yest. However the North invaded the South not to end slavery, but restore the Union and impose the collection of revenues. Lincoln's Proclamations of War and Blockade 181 -180 do not mention slavery, but collection of revenues. Lincoln supported the Corwin Amendment, which would have made it illegal for the federal government to interfere with slavery where it existed in the South. When slaves began entering Union army lines, the Yankees didn't know what to do with them, so they often returned them to their owns. Until Butler dehumanized them by declaring contraband. The Emancipation Proclamation did not free slaves in loyal states or Union occupied areas of the south. So the Confederate soldier was not fighting for slavery, but to defend his home.

    Your argument that the statues were build and the schools named as rebuttals of African-American civil rights not only has a shred of evidence, but also contains the logical fallacy Post hoc ergo propter hoc. The statues were built to mark the 50th and 100th anniversaries of the war. Statues were going up in THE NORTH AT THE SAME TIME. The Lincoln Monument wasn't built until 1923.

    See more of my thoughts in this video about Booker T. Washington's response to someone asking for a private donation to a Confederate monument

  • Emerald Knight

    Just because someone loses a war. Doesn't mean you can't be proud of your history and heritage. My ancestors fought for the south in Tennessee And I'm proud of it. I fly my star's And bar's daily. It's own my property And you can see it from the public road. And if you don't like it. You have the right to take another road.PROBLEMS SOLVED.

  • Loren and Lois Stevenson

    I do want to point that I was taught the south did not fight for slavery, not mentioning letters and statements from people of the time. That being said, we cannot trust non-monument history and like how people are trying to deny the holocaust. So do we put people's feelings above truth or do hide or past from our children like we did with the Japanese Americans detained in America during the second world war? That is why I love this channel, keep history true.

  • becky bradford maurer

    Then explain to my if it were about slavery them how come northern states had slaves as well up until three months after the war. Funny how fools preach lies. They never talk about the brave Confederate black free men who served, Indian, Asians as well oh, how that narrative of hate and slavery just went out the window. The monument and memorials were erected because mothers of the south did not have a grave to honor their sons. See all the lies people tell to divide us. Look up HK Edgerton a black man who will tell you the truth.

  • Sean Boundy

    While the Old South lost the Civil War, it's Spirit still remains. Even if you took all of them down, it's spirit will still grow.

  • Doyle Howard

    This is a great series of videos that answer a lot of head scratching questions! Where are the Monuments to the Quakers and Underground Railroad. My great great uncle was O.O. Howard the Christian General and founder of Howard University.

  • Chet Simmons

    You can keep your history by simply putting them in a museum where you can see them whenever you want without offending those who see them as divisive. The same way Germany has done with natzi memorabilia. This way your history is preserved and everybody's happy.

    Because no matter how you try and justify it these monuments represent racial division and hate towards black people. Regardless of individual intent or if you owned slaves or not, the cause was racially motivated.

  • Conner Fields

    Were early 20th century Italian Americans considered latin in a way that people who are of Latin American Ethnicity in the U.S. were considered latin? If not, why not? If so, why so? Did this distinction go away? If so why did it go away or melt away (melting pot?)?

  • Leggon Arm

    Abraham Lincoln wanted the blacks to go back to Africa, he also didn't want them freed, the South forced his hand. So should we tear the Lincoln Memorial down because it stands for a falsity? Where does the social justice end?

  • Gene Louie

    May I suggest to just move them to s central location. This preserves them and are not destroyed for those who want too see them. The best place to people to view these statues…next a sewage plant.

  • Matt DOE

    Hell history is history we can not forget it good bad or ugly we must learn if we tear down monuments dont mean we can forget and then we may do again weather black or white if in 2019 we wish to keep up oh my mom was a slave then when it we will be or are we free? But yaaa there are some still playing the victim but how ever they will never know pure hate

  • fishmasterlures

    Total Leftist view points…We can only hope that the South rises up again and the new civil war will be won by the Right and the Left WILL DIE!

  • kevyster

    Ban kkk Margaret Sanger salute for her eugenics The Negro Project now known as Planned Parenthood. Union was also pro slavery, they just lie like he'll about which the Confederacy was always honest about it. The war was not fought over slavery because it wasn't between the USA and Canada.

  • Ray B

    Statues honoring their fallen dead..Honestly. if youre the type of person that walks passed an inanimate object and gets butthurt over slavery you never lived through or suffering that YOU yourself as a human being never endured then there is something seriously wrong with you..We have president squirrell turds to deal with but in the age of the special snowflake sjw we have to have to make amends or be apologists..Im sorry but screw that. Look..lets make everyone happy. Erect a statue of a gigantic Eggplant with a blonde blue eyed white woman riding it on the white house lawn…There..equality..

  • sublime_ death_

    there are multiple ways to remember history. we do not need to heroize wrongdoers in public space. i suggest either demolishing the statues, or transporting them to another location, while offering an appropriate history lesson to help people understand the history of confederate statues.

  • 69gold top

    These people did great things where they lived who buildsa a monument to others generals who did things in other states the whole racest thing is fake history and you do not own them or where they are now the true criminals vandals destroy and are backed by other criminals there was no return to slavery we have a person speaking that chooses what they want to be true read books written by the union officers to learn the truth my great great grandfather fought for the union army 2 million man union army 300,000 man sothern army and south backed by nepolian who fell during the war while the union was backed by england and the union almost lost !the anti christians pro gay pro abortion pro child transgender is who promotes this. its because it of white Christians slavery was ended here and africa and england and women gained there rights .when the Africans enslaved there neighbors tribes first and i doubt would have ever stopped go ahead whats coming next the Holy Bible predicts,neal at the flag bring in as many muslims who really own there women and illeagles that dont love this country .its demise will also be the demise of you ….good day

  • Tariq Muhammad

    If the argument is – The confederate monuments should be removed because of perceived racism – then to me it's a bogus reason. Otherwise, I agree with the comment of the North had slaves as well. Therefore, monuments of Northern slave holders and those who supported should be removed as well. If things were reversed would so – called blacks be fighting to keep monuments of those who had brutally abused their white slaves? My opinion, as it is now with whites fighting to preserve a portion of American history – blacks would be doing the same now if the history was reversed.

  • Jason Mazzonello

    Let’s just bury the parts of history we deem offensive! We can be like the Germans and not talk about the bad stuff in schools and just look at history through rose coloured glasses! With this mentality, they should bulldoze the remains of the concentration camps and put up parks filled with statues of sugar, spice, and everything nice because being reminded about dark times is bad and makes you feel sad

  • Tom

    I don’t really care if there’s still statues, but if they do bring them down it should go in a museum. No just store it somewhere to just forget History

  • Kirk French

    Its been what 150 some years since the Civil war ended its time to lay down the Race card. The war and civil rights are part of our history some of our history is. Bad slavery was horrible the Civil rights were a terrible time but having gone thru that is what made America what it is today if you were born here you are American plain and simple. If you choose to put color into that that's your choice I don't born American not African American either because I'm not german American I'm a American

  • James Carter

    Everyone knows why. The same reason there are no overwhelming amount of Northern union statues. The need for Whites to think themselves superior to Blacks. Or else all these statues would be where they belong, along side union statues, on the civil war battlefields honoring the war dead. The South only values the immoral slave culture and its so called heros.

  • chazz Lucas

    Origin Of Everything I hope you know (if not maybe my comment will help) that the removal of statues, certain words from books and what children are NOT being taught in school is the agenda of those who are RACIST !!!!

    Question = What happens if all the offensive statues, the "n" word removed from books and only the good and nice parts of history are taught in the schools to our children ??

    Answer = In one generations time all that history would be wiped away ! As though it NEVER happened : (
    This is what they want, so in say a hundred years or so a person asks " wasn't there slavery in America and a war fought over it " ? The answer will be NO… of course not … Who told you that ????

    Get the point ? I hope so : )

  • Tony Williams

    Civil War and Slavery was horrible! Some Union states had free slaves too! I’m questing some people want to really hold on to their ancestors dark pasts!

  • Brit Ferguson

    These monuments need to be is museums so people who want to see this part of American history, can go and visit.

    But an American citizen who this directly offends, shouldn’t live their lives seeing this every day. In Germany, any nazi related monuments are completely removed and families with Hilter surnames, had name changes.

    Really can’t tell people racism is dead in a country that was literally built and still ran this day on racism.

  • Ken Doss

    The only way I will support taking down confederate monuments and statues os of all the statues are removed. White, black, Indians, chinese, sports, politicians, inventers, buiness professionals, religous, fictional, basically all forms of statues.


    I really enjoy your very detailed and well articulated narratives. It’s better than most of the professors and teachers I had in school.

  • The Engineer

    Fear is why you see these monuments. There are many folks who fear different skin complexions. You don’t see blacks concerned that white people tan yet there are some white people who are intimidated and fearful about black and brown skin.

  • X

    I’d say let them keep their monuments. So what if they are glorifying a past that wasn’t. Why are we pretending that the Confederates were in the wrong? Because people didn’t like it? The only thing in this world that matters is power. You either have or you don’t. Slavery isn’t wrong, Appealing to pity or repugnance will not change that. You either have the power/strength to fight back or you become subjugated. Behavior is behavior. The only rights you have are the ones you can enforce. The only reason why blacks and the whites who pander to them can look back with smugness is due to the overall strength of the Union. That’s strength and the will to back it up, not booing about right and wrong.

  • frank cruz

    The Confederate Statue Should Be In White American Community City Or A All White Town In A White Community With Out Offending The Black People Community Or Black People See Confederate Statue Or Confederate Flag Relocated 🇺🇸💪🏻🤘🏻👨🏻‍🎓👮🏻‍♂️

  • Joel Fetner

    Confederate monuments proliferated after reconstruction because that was about the time Southerners were allowed to earn money, make profit, and use their money to honor the courageous men of their respective states- 90% of whom never cared one way or the other about slavery. Southerners only want to honor courage , honor, and sacrifice of their own local antecedents. Southerners inherently feel that they are special and that they are different. They celebrate the difference & care not one whit for race. Northerners will, I fear, always Ty their best to never understand that.

  • Crocoshark

    Public monuments are pigeon toilets. I don't really see how they shape the narrative of a nation, at least not in this particular instance.

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